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Myths about Point of View

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If you haven’t yet read the post Who’s Afraid of Point of View, you might consider reading that first, so that you are familiar with the names of the different literary Points of View. The myths, and some of the answers, won’t make much sense if you don’t know the names of the very limited number of literary Points of View.

Don’t worry: I’ll wait for you to get back…

Critics (and some writers) love to make up rules about writing in general and about Point of View in particular, perhaps because it is a challenging area to master and even the best authors sometimes make mistakes in Point of View. But many of these “rules” have attained an almost mythic status; they are passed out at writers’ conferences as if the rules were carved in stone and handed down at Mt. Sinai.

Inexperienced writers are often told that if they don’t follow the mythical rules about Point of View, they’ll never get published, the equivalent of telling an aspiring author that he will be spending the rest of his life in hell. But I’ve learned that most of these rules are just myths and that you can always find reputable, well-written books that successfully break the traditional conventions concerning Point of View.

Let’s examine some of these myths:

Myth # I:

Commercial fiction
(also called formula or genre fiction,
such as mysteries, romances, science fiction, fantasy, etc.)
is always written in Unlimited Point of View.

This is simply not true. An exploration of the classic books of commercial fiction reveals as many books written in First Person as in Unlimited Point of View.

Myth #2:

Literary fiction is always written
in First Person Point of View.

I’m not sure how this myth got started, unless the person who said it meant to say that contemporary literary fiction is always written in First Person Point of View, but even that’s not true. Although there is a great deal of contemporary literary fiction written in First Person, there is also a great deal written in Unlimited, Inner Limited, and Outer Limited Points of View.

Myth #3:

You can’t write from a man’s perspective
if you’re a woman  (or vice versa),
even if you’re using First Person Point of View.

There is a long history of male authors who are unable to create realistic female characters, Shakespeare and Hemingway among them, as well as an equally long list of female authors whose male characters are not considered realistic, no matter what Point of View their books are written in.

Nevertheless, there are many fine examples of male authors writing in First Person as a female character, such as Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of a Geisha, and of female authors writing in First Person as a male character, as I did in my first novel, The Kommandant’s Mistress, and as Joyce Carol Oates does in Zombie.

The author’s gender does not matter as much as the author’s willingness to enter into the thoughts, feelings, desires, and motivations of his character, along the author’s ability to separate himself from the character he is creating.

Myth #4:

You can’t switch Point of View in a novel.
You must pick one Point of View and
stay with it throughout the book.

There is a difference between switching (or changing) Point of View and lapsing from your chosen Point of View. Lapsing means you’ve erroneously slipped out of the Point of View you’ve chosen, and that’s simply a writing mistake.

But never switching Point of View?

Ridiculous. Of course you can.

How often?

That depends on the work itself and on your skill as a writer.

Myth #5:

Each time you describe a different character,
you are changing Point of View.

This is not true unless you also go from First Person to Unlimited (or vice versa) or from any Point of View to another. Simply changing the focus of your writing does not change your Point of View.

Myth #6:

First Person Point of View
is easier to write than the others.

At first glance, this might seem to be true. But if you’re really faithful to the character’s perspective, as opposed to your own, writing in First Person, because it is always a limited Point of View, can be extremely difficult and demanding. The challenges of First Person increase exponentially if you’re using unreliable narrators. In fact, I would venture to say that First Person is one of the more challenging Points of View because of its limitations.

Myth #7:

It’s easy to write in
Outer Limited Point of View
because you’re pretending
you’re a “fly on the wall” or a “camera,”
so you just write down everything you see.

Outer Limited is, without a doubt, the most difficult Point of View in which to write. Even if you pretend you’re a “camera” or a “fly on the wall,” as Ernest Hemingway described this Point of View, it’s much more demanding than it seems. As a camera or a fly on the wall, you must remain absolutely objective, non-judgmental, and non-human. Your emotions as the author must not be revealed in this Point of View. Whether or not you like or approve of your characters and their actions must not be revealed. After all, you are a camera or a fly.

As a human writer, however, every single word you choose is subjective and can reveal your emotions and judgment on the scenes you are writing. That’s what causes the problems and the difficulties in this Point of View. Outer Limited is the most difficult Point of View to use successfully, and it’s the one authors most often lapse in.

Myth #8:

Even if you’re writing fiction, you can
only write about aspects of your own life
from your own perspective.
Otherwise, you’re “trespassing”
into other people’s lives and experiences.

If this were true, then most of the world’s fiction — literary and commercial — would be eliminated. How many bald, midget, alternate-world doctors (Insomnia) do you think Stephen King has met? How many serial killers has Patricia Cornwell (Post Mortem) encountered in her bedroom? And if you only write your own life, then you’re writing memoir or autobiography, not fiction.

Fiction writers have a moral obligation to tell good stories and to write from perspectives other than their own. How would fiction writers ever master First Person Point of View if they only wrote about themselves? If they only wrote about their own lives from their own perspective, wouldn’t they be writing the same book over and over? And if they were only writing from their own personal and limited perspective, then they’d certainly have a difficult time mastering any of the other Points of View.

Myth #9:

There are really no limitations to
First Person Point of View;
you can shift to something called
“objective narration”
and then into Unlimited Point of View
as long as you do it in stages.

Of course, there are no limitations to any Point of View if you don’t care if you’re doing it authentically. The limitations to First Person Point of View are the same limitations any human being has: each of us only knows what’s in his own head and heart; everything else is viewed externally.

If you’re authentically writing in First Person Point of View, then you cannot shift to Unlimited — no matter how subtly or in how many stages you do it — without a visual “warning” or indication of some kind to your readers. And the term “objective narration” came from a writer at a conference where I was a visiting author: I had no idea what it meant when he said it, and I still don’t.

If you want to tell every thing about every character, you should use Unlimited Point of View. If you want to write in First Person, then you need to accept the fact that there are real limitations. Otherwise, you need to write in Multiple Points of View, keeping each Point of View separate so as not to confuse your readers.

Myth #10:

Famous writers like James Joyce (in Ulysses)
often change Point of View,
sometimes in the middle of a sentence.
If they can do it, so can other writers.

It’s true that James Joyce shifts Point of View in Ulysses often and in the middle of sentences, besides. It’s also true that it’s confusing, annoying, frustrating for readers, and that not many people besides Joyce scholars read Ulysses. So if you want to take a chance on having an extremely limited (and probably confused) audience, then shift Point of View as often as you want with no purpose whatsoever.

However, if there’s a logical and artistic reason for shifting Point of View, and you don’t want to lose your readers, you can read about successfully using multiple Points of View in the same piece of fiction.

And now that we’ve debunked the most common myths of Point of View, you can confidently return to your latest fiction project.

Happy writing, my Lovelies.

Read excerpts from
Mastering Fiction & Point of View

shutterstock_33337354

Who’s Afraid of Point of View?

Wanna see something scary? Take a look at a few of the terms floating around in creative writing handbooks to explain Point of View: viewpoint ...
Continue reading
stock-photo-52076944-young-woman-sitting-at-home-with-pen-and-paper

Myths about Point of View

If you haven't yet read the post Who's Afraid of Point of View, you might consider reading that first, so that you are familiar with ...
Continue reading
images-4 copy 2

Urgency in Fiction, Part One

If I hadn't fallen off the mountain, I never would have believed it. Actually, I did believe it before I fell off the mountain, but ...
Continue reading
Urgency in Fiction, Part Two

Urgency in Fiction, Part Two

If you haven't read "Urgency in Fiction, Part One," I'd suggest that you start there: otherwise, this blog post, which is a continuation of that ...
Continue reading
family-1623997

No Demons, No Saints: Creating Realistic Characters

Character development is one of the most important things an author has to master to create memorable and vivid fiction. Without realistic characters, the reader ...
Continue reading
talking-1239092

Writing Effective Dialogue

Once fiction writers have mastered Urgency (parts one and two) and creating realistic characters, the next major stumbling block is usually portraying effective dialogue. The ...
Continue reading

from Mastering Point of View: Using POV & Fiction Elements to Create Conflict, Develop Characters, Revise your Work, & Improve Your Craft; Revised, Updated, & Expanded; 20th Anniversary Edition; © 2001, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2017 by Alexandria Constantinova Szeman (originally published by Story Press, 2001). All rights reserved. Please do not quote or excerpt without accompanying copyright information.

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Filed under Creative Writing, How to Write, How to Write a Book, Point of View, Writing, Writing & Revising

Urgency in Fiction, Part Two

If you haven’t read “Urgency in Fiction, Part One,” I’d suggest that you start there: otherwise, this blog post, which is a continuation of that one, won’t make much sense. Part One was about the types of Urgency and putting it into the actual fiction you are writing.

Though these posts are aimed at fiction writers — since they are excerpts from the upcoming Mastering Fiction & Point of View: Create Conflict, Develop Characters, Revise Your Work, & Improve Your Craft; Revised, Updated, & Expanded; 14th Anniversary Edition of the original 2001 Mastering Point of View, published by Story Press — the concept of Urgency applies to all types of writing, from non-fiction to poetry, from screenplays to memoir. Because the first edition of the book was aimed at fiction writers, the revised version is, too.

This post is about how editors in the Traditional Publishing Land of New York use it in titles as marketing tools — which is their job — and how you can learn to do it, too. There are plenty of examples from Indie and self-published authors here. If they can do it, so can you.

And by the way, no one taught me about Urgency when I began to write fiction. Another writer I knew who was accepted into a prestigious MFA program read one of her stories in class — a story that I’d read and liked a lot — and was blasted by the professor in front of the entire class. The writer was told that she needed to put something in her story that would make it “a lot more urgent.” When she asked the professor what he meant, he said, “You’ll have to figure that out yourself.”

Since she knew that I’d borrowed $18K at 17 7/8% interest from the bank to take a year off work, without pay, to write my first novel, she passed that “message” along to me via a mutual friend. So I had to figure out exactly what the professor meant by making fiction “a lot more urgent.” It took me a while, but eventually I figured it out, coined “Urgency” as its name, wrote my first article on it at the request of editor Sylvia Burack (for The Writer, in 1997) and have been passing it on to writers ever since.

The original article has also been anthologized in many books and other magazines, including those published by Writer’s Digest Press, so you may have seen shorter version of it there, or on my website, under Mastering Point of View since a shortened version appeared in the first edition of that book.

Urgency in Titles

In traditional publishing, the contracts give the editors the final say on the title of an author’s book — because the title is part of marketing, and that is the editor’s job. All authors can learn to put Urgency into their own titles, however, so that they do not get changed by the publishing house.

Urgency in titles is also vitally important if the author is Indie publishing since he’ll have no editor helping him make his book more marketable by making the title have Urgency.

Here are some examples of titles which have Urgency, randomly chosen from a variety of genres, including short fiction, novels, plays, memoir, and non-fiction since all titles must have Urgency to get readers’ attention.

  • My Date With Satan (Stacy Richter)
  • Church of Dead Girls (Stephen Dobyns)
  • The Killer Inside Me (Jim Thompson)
  • I Married a Dead Man (Cornell Woolrich)
  • Waiting to Exhale (Terry McMillan)
  • Possessing the Secret of Joy (Alice Walker)
  • The Killing Gift (Bari Wood)
  • Of Human Bondage (W. Somerset Maugham)
  • The Man in the Iron Mask (Alexandre Dumas)
  • A Good Man is Hard to Find (Flannery O’Connor)
  • Cracking India (Bapsi Sidhwa)
  • As I Lay Dying (William Faulkner)
  • A Streetcar Named Desire (Tennessee Williams)
  • Girl, Interrupted (Susanna Kaysen)
  • Me Talk Pretty One Day (David Sedaris)

A trip to your local bookstore or library — or a scan online — will reveal an exciting array of titles.  Some are good; some aren’t. Unless the authors are already bestsellers, however, only the titles with Urgency are likely to attract readers.

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Urgency in Classic Opening Lines

Most stories and books, no matter when they were written, contain Urgency. And they have it in the very first sentence, despite what some neophyte writers believe. Look at the wonderful Urgency in these classic opening lines, in various Points of View.

  • I looked at my notes and I didn’t like them. (Isaac Asimov, I, Robot)
  • It must have been a little after three o’clock in the afternoon that it happened. (Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Land That Time Forgot)
  • Looking back to all that has occurred to me since that eventful day, I am scarcely able to believe in the reality of my adventures. (Jules Verne, A Journey to the Center of the Earth)
  • It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. (Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice)
  • All happy families resemble one another, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. ( Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina)
  • They found me in the gutter. (Mickey Spillane, The Girl Hunters)
  • Once upon a time when the world was young there was a Martian named Smith. (Robert A. Heinlein, Stranger in a Strange Land)

Though the concept of Urgency may have been called different things in the past, or may not have even been called anything at all by the earliest storytellers, it’s always existed, and it exists to keep the readers (or the listening audience, when storytelling was oral, before books were readily available) attached to the story to find out what happens.

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Urgency in Contemporary Opening Sentences

Most fiction, whether contemporary or classic, starts with Urgency. That means in the very first sentence. Some authors call it a “hook,” and some call it the “attention-grabber,” but it’s all Urgency by other names. It gets the reader’s attention and makes him want to continue reading. Look at the opening sentences of some contemporary novels, and you’ll find wonderful examples of Urgency.

  • When I was little I would think of ways to kill my daddy. (Kaye Gibbons, Ellen Foster)
  • Mr. and Mrs. Dursley, of number four, Privet Drive, were proud to say that they were perfectly normal, thank you very much. (J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone)
  • They shoot the white girl first. (Toni Morrison, Paradise)
  • When I was a young lad twenty or thirty or forty years ago I lived in a small town where they were all after me on account of what I done on Mrs. Nugent. (Patrick McCabe, The Butcher Boy)
  • Throughout the long summer before my mother’s trial began, and they during those crisp days in the fall when her life was paraded publicly before the county — her character lynched, her wisdom impugned — I overheard much more than my parents realized, and I understood more than they would have liked. (Chris Bohjalian, Midwives)
  • Stupid me — I fell right into the old pattern and spent a week pretending I was a moving target. (Peter Straub, Mr. X)
  • Red is the color of violent death. Red is the color of strong feelings — love, passion, greed, anger, hatred. (Tami Hoag, A Think Dark Line)
  • Through the doorway which led from her receptionist-secretary’s office into her own, Catherine Morris Perry instantly noticed the box on her desk. (Tony Hillerman, Talking God)
  • I was late, and I don’t mean the kind of late where I spent too much time doing my hair and was now stuck in traffic. (Gemma Halliday, Spying in High Heels)
  • People disappear all the time. (Diana Gabaldon, Outlander)

images-11 copyUrgency in the Opening Sentences of Indie Authors

When the 1st edition of Mastering Point of View was published by Story Press in 2001 (it had been researched and written in 2000), e-books did not exist. Neither did the concept of Indie authors. Only traditionally published authors and self-published authors got their books into print, and only the former had a chance of getting their work into bookstores.

Print-on-demand (POD), which allowed publishers to print books only when they were ordered by bookstores rather than to do print-runs of thousands of copies in advance — necessitating warehousing of any un-shipped copies — revolutionized the printed book industry. Furthermore, the creation of e-books and portable, functional e-book readers allowed more authors without traditional representation in the New York publishing conglomerate to get their books out to potential readers. Since those markets didn’t even exist in 2000, none of those authors were included in the 1st edition of Mastering Point of View.

Since its initial publication, however, with the advent of POD and e-books, more Indie authors have been able to get their fine, well-written books out to the public via online bookstores. Many of these authors have become best-sellers, and all of the Indie authors cited in this book, many of whose work will be found excerpted throughout, are excellent authors who deserve special recognition for their courage in choosing Indie publication as well as for their mastery of fiction fundamentals and Point of View. All these authors, writing in many different genres, have Urgency in their opening sentences.

  • I have a way of becoming invisible. (Cecily Anne Paterson, Invisible)
  • This is the way the world ends — not with a bang or a whimper, but with zombies breaking down the back door. (Amanda Hocking, Hollowland, Book 1, The Hollows)
  • His movements were slow, his roots ripping free of the earth and then replanting with every step. (Emma Kathryn, “Tidal,” Puppets & Dolls)
  • From the first moment I laid eyes on him, I knew I was going to murder him. (Peter Dawes, Rebirth of the Seer, Book 1, The Vampire Flynn)
  • The hardest thing about killing a hitchhiker was finding one to pick up. (Blake Crouch & Jack Kilborn [J. A. Konrath], Serial)
  • Sarah Sawacki checked her watch against the clock on the dash and returned to her vigil. (John Potter, Chasing Innocence)
  • Killing someone is a lot harder than you’d imagine. (L. T. Vargus, Casting Shadows Everywhere)
  • The planet recedes rapidly in the viewport as I gaze upon it. (Drew Wagar, “Metal,” Fusion)
  • It wasn’t supposed to happen this way. (Seumas Gallacher, Vengeance Wears Black)
  • Boone Sumner sat in his pickup truck, gnawing the same thumbnail that he always gnawed when his nerves went a-jitter. (Aaron Saylor, Sewerville)
  • Oh, bugger. I had been hoping for a quiet evening. (John Dolan, Everyone Burns, Book 1, Time, Blood, and Karma)
  • The ship hung above the earth that had created it like a giant, old style compass needle, pointing towards the stars and potential salvation. (John Hoggard, “Baby Babble,” Fusion)

Don’t take any chances on not grabbing your reader’s attention from the very moment they pick up your book or look at a sample of your work. Put Urgency in your first sentence.

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MAINTAINING URGENCY

Urgency must be maintained throughout the piece of fiction to be effective. Chapter 2 of Leo Tolstoy’s The Death of Ivan Ilych, for example, begins with this line: “Ivan Ilych’s life had been most simple and most ordinary and therefore most terrible.” That’s fantastic Urgency and it’s in Unlimited Point of View.

Though it may seem artificial for you to continually have to be aware of Urgency as you’re writing the novel, it will not be artificial to your audience. On the contrary, even when an experienced writer reads other books with Urgency, the writer is still turning the pages as rapidly as he can to figure out what’s going to happen, just as any other readers would. As you make the Urgency integral to the plot, character development, or Voice, you can write in any Point of View and effectively maintain your readers’ interest.

Successful authors in all genres maintain Urgency. Diana Gabaldon’s bestselling novel Outlander demonstrates consistently maintained Urgency in First Person Point of View: her female protagonist, Claire, while on her second honeymoon in Scotland, is transported from 1945 back to the past in the early 1740s. While there, Claire constantly worries about getting back to her own time, even as she agrees to a marriage of “convenience” with a young Scottish clansman whom she finds physically and sexually attractive. Gabaldon maintains Urgency through plot (conflict) and character development.

In Book 1 of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, The Fellowship of the Ring, author J. R. R. Tolkien ends virtually every small section within each chapter with Urgency. So each time there is additional white space — when a scene is changing — Tolkien puts in Urgency. He also puts it at the end of each chapter, but, surprisingly, that Urgency is not always as compelling as the Urgency at the end of each section. In any event, he consistently includes it — in plot (conflict), dialogue, character development, or Voice — to keep the story moving steadily forward and to keep his readers engaged.

George R. R. Martin does the same thing in his Song of Ice and Fire [Game of Thrones] series, which is written in Unlimited Point of View. Each chapter is from the perspective of a different character, and the chapter is titled with the name of that character. (Martin calls them “viewpoint” characters, but I’m not sure what that means; what I do know is that while most of the events in each individual chapter are related from said-title-character’s perspective, the entire series is written in Unlimited Point of View.) At the end of each character’s chapter, Martin ends with Urgency, usually in plot (conflict).

Chris Bohjalian, author of several best-selling books, including Midwives and The Law of Similars, is an absolute master of Urgency in plot (conflict), character development, and Voice. Many of his books use First Person Point of View, often presenting different perspectives. No matter the perspective, the Point of View, or the subject matter, Bohjalian consistently maintains Urgency throughout all of his works. As a fellow author, I can see perfectly well when he is putting Urgency in, but that doesn’t stop me from staying awake all night to keep turning the pages and discover what happens to his characters.

Maintaining Urgency, in any form, will keep your readers interested in your work, even if it is a series of books, running into thousands of pages. Without Urgency, readers will quickly lose interest in the fiction, so you need to master it before you attempt to master anything else.

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FINAL WORDS ON URGENCY AND POINT OF VIEW

Since Urgency in achieved through plot, character development, and Voice, it can be maintained in any Point of View. Voice may be easier to develop in First Person Point of View, and so, the more fascinating the Voice of a narrator, the greater the Urgency would be. There are many examples of novels in First Person Point of View that have Urgency in plot and Voice, such as Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. However, there are many other books which develop and maintain Urgency in various Points of View, including Second Person (Jay McInerney’s Bright Lights, Big City), Unlimited (C. L. Bevill’s Bubba and the Dead Woman), and Outer Limited (Alain Robbe-Grillet’s Jealousy).

Urgency takes a little practice at first, but once an author understands the concept of Urgency as “the thing which keeps the reader turning pages” through plot, character development, Voice, or any combination of the three, then Urgency can be present in all Points of View.

Also, this is where your beta-readers (called “family and friends” when I was first publishing) will be most helpful in giving you feedback: to determine if your work has lost Urgency, simply ask your beta-readers, whether they be friends, family members, or paid professionals, to indicate any points in the work where they lost interest, put the work down to do something else that was not an emergency, or wanted to read some other book. If all your readers mark the same places, then you know you need to work on Urgency in those areas of your book.

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EXERCISES TO DEVELOP URGENCY

1. Go to the bookstore and spend an hour or so reading the opening lines of novels. How many of them impart Urgency? How many of them keep you turning pages, right there in the bookstore? How many of them do you buy so that you can finish reading? If a book can’t pass the Urgency test, it isn’t very likely to have either a large or an enthusiastic audience.

2. Write the first sentence of your novel and make sure it has Urgency, whether in plot, character development, or in Voice. The point of view doesn’t matter, so long as there’s Urgency. Pretend this is the only sentence your audience will read, that they’ll buy the book based on how intriguing or interesting they find this first sentence. Make it the best piece of writing you can. Now, show it to as many other people as you can and ask them the following questions:

  • Would they want to continue reading based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you do have Urgency. If not, you need to work on it.
  • Would they want to buy the book — as an e-book — based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you have good Urgency.
  • Would they want to buy the book — in paperback — based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you have better Urgency.
  • Would they want to buy the book — in hardcover — based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you have excellent Urgency.
  • Would they want to buy the book — in hardcover or paperback — and every other book you’ve written, based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you have fantastic Urgency, and you’ve definitely mastered this concept.

3. Write the first paragraph to the first sentence you wrote for exercise 1. Make sure you periodically include Urgency in the paragraph and that you end with Urgency. Show this paragraph to your readers, as many as you can find, and ask them the same questions you asked for the first exercise, substituting “the first paragraph” for “the first sentence.”

4. Write the title for your novel and make sure it has Urgency. Show this title to your readers, as many as you can find, and ask them the same questions you asked for the first exercise, substituting “title” for “the first sentence.” (Don’t get too attached to your titles, however, since editors and publishing houses have the contractual right to change the title: a title is for marketing purposes, and there are many stories of famous authors who say they simply never got used to the title of their published book, which was chosen by the editor. However, after my first book, none of my titles have ever been changed, so you can learn to put Urgency in your titles — marketable Urgency — and keep the titles you like: just think of the title as a marketing tool.)

Read excerpts from
Mastering Fiction & Point of View

shutterstock_33337354

Who’s Afraid of Point of View?

Wanna see something scary? Take a look at a few of the terms floating around in creative writing handbooks to explain Point of View: viewpoint ...
Continue reading
stock-photo-52076944-young-woman-sitting-at-home-with-pen-and-paper

Myths about Point of View

If you haven't yet read the post Who's Afraid of Point of View, you might consider reading that first, so that you are familiar with ...
Continue reading
images-4 copy 2

Urgency in Fiction, Part One

If I hadn't fallen off the mountain, I never would have believed it. Actually, I did believe it before I fell off the mountain, but ...
Continue reading
Urgency in Fiction, Part Two

Urgency in Fiction, Part Two

If you haven't read "Urgency in Fiction, Part One," I'd suggest that you start there: otherwise, this blog post, which is a continuation of that ...
Continue reading
family-1623997

No Demons, No Saints: Creating Realistic Characters

Character development is one of the most important things an author has to master to create memorable and vivid fiction. Without realistic characters, the reader ...
Continue reading
talking-1239092

Writing Effective Dialogue

Once fiction writers have mastered Urgency (parts one and two) and creating realistic characters, the next major stumbling block is usually portraying effective dialogue. The ...
Continue reading

from Mastering Point of View: Using POV & Fiction Elements to Create Conflict, Develop Characters, Revise your Work, & Improve Your Craft; Revised, Updated, & Expanded; 20th Anniversary Edition; © 2001, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2017 by Alexandria Constantinova Szeman (originally published by Story Press, 2001). All rights reserved. Please do not quote or excerpt without accompanying copyright information.

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Leave a Comment

Filed under Creative Writing, How to Write, How to Write a Book, Point of View, Writing, Writing & Revising

Who’s Afraid of Point of View?

stock-photo-37022840-sadnessWanna see something scary? Take a look at a few of the terms floating around in creative writing handbooks to explain Point of View: viewpoint character, focus character, referential and non-referential narrative, psycho-narration, subjective narration, overt or covert narration, anonymous narration from multiple character Point of View, zero focalization, implied or self-effaced author. It’s enough to make you shudder. It’s no wonder that many creative writers are confused about Point of View in fiction.

It doesn’t help to turn to literary criticism either. Some critics argue, for example, that every story is told by a narrator, even fairy tales and folktales, which start with “once upon a time.” Though it’s true that the technical definition of the term narrator is “one who tells a story” and the author is, indeed, the one telling the story, popular and traditional usage limits the term narrator to an “I” or “we” in the story, whether as an active participant, like Huck in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, or as an observer, like Nick in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby.

Literary critics claim that “third-person narrators” stand completely outside the story they’re telling, speaking of the participants within the story in the grammatical third person, using he, she, it, they. As if that weren’t confusing enough to someone trying to understand literary Point of View, some critics complicate the situation even further by presenting terms like heterodiegetic narrator and homodiegetic narrator, as Gerard Genette did in Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method and Narrative Dis course Revisited. Knowing that those terms were based on Plato’s terms for authorial discourse (diegesis), which is differentiated from the imitated speech of a character (mimesis), doesn’t make the terms any easier to understand or remember. And it certainly doesn’t help creative writers learn how to master Point of View.

 

stock-photo-48322464-retro-typewriter-on-a-wooden-deskTraditional Divisions of Point of View

Despite rhetorician and critic Wayne C. Booth’s complaint in Rhetoric of Fiction that there are not enough divisions or distinctions to Point of View, most writers still understand the more limited terms with which many of us grew up:

  • First Person Point of View, with an “I” or a “we” telling the story
  • third-person Unlimited, also known as the omniscient Point of View since the author is considered godlike, written in grammatical third person: he, she, it, they
  • third-person limited, one version of which is also called the fly-on-the-wall or the camera Point of View, also in grammatical third person
  • Second Person Point of View, addressing a “you,” which is sometimes the reader

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WHY POINT OF VIEW IS IMPORTANT
TO FICTION WRITERS

Most nonfiction writing does not trouble itself with Point of View. Mostly, these works are written in the voices of their authors or in Unlimited Point of View, where the author provides all the information her readers may need. Poetry concerns itself with Point of View (and voice) most often in dramatic monologues, like T.S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and “The Journey of the Magi” or like Robert Browning’s “My Last Duchess,” in which the voice of the First Person narrator is so distinctive that it develops his character. In fiction, however, Point of View is vitally important. It can completely alter the reader’s experience of the characters and events that take place. Examine these classic opening lines:

  • All happy families resemble one another, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way (Anna Karenina, by Leo Tolstoy).
  • You don’t know about me, without you have read a book by the name of “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,” but that ain’t no matter (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain).
  • Dear Father and Mother: I have great trouble, and some com fort, to acquaint you with (Pamela: Or Virtue Rewarded, by Samuel Richardson).
  • Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress (Middlemarch, by George Eliot).
  • Alexey Fyodorovitch Karamazov was the third son of Fyodor Pavlovitch Karamazov, a landowner well known in our district in his own day, and still remembered among us owing to his gloomy and tragic death, which happened thirteen years ago, and which I shall describe in its proper place (The Brothers Karamazov, by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, sometimes transliterated as Dostoevsky).
  • I had the story, bit by bit, from various people, and, as generally happens in such cases, each time it was a different story (Ethan Frome, by Edith Wharton).

Imagine, for a moment, these lines written from a different Point of View. Change the opening of Eliot’s Middlemarch from Unlimited to First Person: “I have that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress.” What a different opinion we have of Miss Dorothea Brooke if it is her voice rather than an omniscient author’s that describes her beauty. Likewise, changing Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn from First Person completely eliminates the distinct and unique voice of his narrator-protagonist. Change the Point of View of Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov or Wharton’s Ethan Frome, and we lose the delicious thrill and intimacy of hearing a neighbor, friend or family member relate someone else’s secret and tragic history.

It is not an exaggeration to say that a novel is its Point of View, for Point of View determines the readers’ responses, controls the readers’ sympathies or empathies for the characters, and engages or distances the readers’ emotional involvement in the fictional world. Without Point of View, we lose the rich texture and sheen of fiction’s fabric. Without Point of View, we do not have engaging, disturbing or memorable fiction. In novels, Point of View is even more important than it is in short stories and novellas, if only be cause of the more extensive world the author is creating. Point of View can help you create your fictional world more realistically and make your characters more alive for your audience, so it is essential to understand and master Point of View.

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WHAT POINT OF VIEW IS NOT

Point of View is not determined by the main character, whether you call him protagonist, antagonist, viewpoint character, focal character, or implied author. Point of View is not determined by any characters, no matter which of them the novel focuses on. In fact, Point of View has nothing whatsoever to do with the characters in the novel.

Point of View is not determined by setting, time period or atmosphere, nor is it determined by whether or not the author’s personal beliefs in any way correspond with those expressed in the novel (by characters in thoughts, monologues or dialogue, or by an omniscient voice in Unlimited Point of View).

Point of View is not regulated by whether the characters are speaking to themselves, to some specific listener, or to a more nebulous and distant audience. It is not based on a narrator’s reliability or unreliability, participation in or observation of the events related.

Point of View is not themes, symbolism or political agendas disguised as fiction. Point of View is not determined by whether the author shows or tells, by whether the characters are round, flat, evolving, or static.

Point of View is not determined by the novel’s genre, be it fantasy, science fiction, mystery, suspense, romance, Western or literary fiction. All genres have examples of novels written in each of the various Points of View.

WHAT IS POINT OF VIEW?

So what is Point of View? Most simply stated, it’s how the fiction is written. That’s all there is to it: Point of View is HOW the author writes the work.

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HOW MANY POINTS OF VIEW ARE THERE?

So just how many Points of View are there? For simplicity’s sake, we are going to concentrate on the traditional divisions with a few distinctions for clarification (presented in order of difficulty of mastery, from easiest to most challenging):

  • Unlimited
  • First Person
  • Inner Limited
  • Second Person
  • Outer Limited

Note: Any work that uses more than one Point of View is written in Multiple Points of View.

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  • Unlimited: If the author uses he, she, it or they and tells the reader everything in every character’s head and heart, internal and external lives, then the novel is written in Unlimited Point of View. This is also sometimes called omniscient Point of View, since the author has been likened to an all-knowing creator God in the Judeo-Christian tradition. The author reveals every character’s thoughts, feelings, motivations, and actions. This is the only Point of View not limited in some fashion, hence its name.
  • First Person: If there’s an “I” or a “we” telling the story, then a narrator is present, and the work is written in First Person Point of View. The narrator may be singular (I) or plural (we), reliable or unreliable, but the events in the novel are limited to what the narrator can observe about the other characters’ lives, and to the narrator’s own internal psychological and emotional life.
  • Inner Limited: If the author shows the thoughts and feelings of one character as if he were in that character’s head, though writing in the grammatical third person (he, she, it, they) even to refer to the one character whose thoughts and feelings he’s revealing, and presents only the external observations of all the other characters, then the Point of View is Inner Limited. This Point of View is exactly like First Person but is written in the grammatical third person. It is limited to the inner life of one character, the protagonist, and has all the limitations of First Person Point of View though it is written in the grammatical third person: he, she, it, they. Sometimes authors use this Point of View for multiple characters, but each character must be shown individually and clearly separated from the others. The author should also indicate, in some fashion, that he is shifting from one character to another character while maintaining Inner Limited Point of View: using different chapters or sections of a work, for example. Without this obvious differentiation, the author will be using Unlimited Point of View. James Joyce and Henry James use this Point of View almost exclusively.
  • Second Person: If someone is directly addressed as “you” (not in dialogue), then Second Person Point of View is being used. This directly addressed “you” may be the readers themselves; humanity in general; other actual or implied characters in the novel; or specific historical, political, or otherwise famous people outside the novel who are not the readers.
  • Outer Limited: If the author uses the grammatical third person (he, she, it, they) but stays out of all the characters’ heads, not revealing any character’s internal, psychological, emotional life; choosing instead to show only the external, observable behaviors and dialogue of all of his characters, the writer is using Outer Limited Point of View. The writer limits his presentation to the outer world of all of his characters. This is also been called the “fly-on-the-wall” or the “camera” Point of View since it never presents characters’ interior, psychological, or emotional lives unless revealed in dialogue or action (and when presented in action, it could be open to interpretation on the part of the readers, so writers need to be aware of that possibility). Ernest Hemingway and Alain Robbe-Grillet are two authors who used this Point of View extensively.

Variations on Point of View

How many combinations of these basic Points of View are there? Millions. How many subtle shadings exist within these Points of View? Maybe billions. But you don’t have to count them all to use them. You don’t even have to be aware of all the variations and combinations to master Point of View.

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WHY ALL THE CONFUSION ABOUT POINT OF VIEW?

In everyday conversation, we use the term Point of View to refer to different sides of a situation. For example, if there’s an accident and a police officer questions three people and gets three different versions of what happened, we say that he gets three different points of view. If we’re having a heated discussion with someone who disagrees with us, we say, “That’s your point of view.” Each time we hear someone else’s version of events, we say we have a different point of view.

In literature and creative writing, however, Point of View is limited to how the fiction is written. So if the police officer in the previous example hears three First Person narratives about the accident, then — in literary and creative writing terms — he’s heard three stories from the same Point of View: First Person. Each of these First Person narratives, though, is from a different perspective. So, in literary terms, the police officer has heard three perspectives from the same Point of View. That distinction is critical for creative writers if they wish to master Point of View.

Different Perspective, Same Point of View

An author can change perspective without changing Point of View. I do this frequently in my first two novels, The Kommandant’s Mistress and Only with the Heart. Each section is told in First Person, so there is no change in Point of View from a literary standpoint. Since each narrator is giving a different version of what happened, however, there are two different perspectives. Since these two sections are both told from First Person Point of View, there is no change in the Point of View. We do, however, have a change in perspective since we have two different narrators telling the events as they remember it.

George R. R. Martin does this brilliantly in his Song of Ice and Fire [Game of Thrones] series. Heading each chapter with the name of a different character, while using Unlimited Point of View throughout, Martin shows us the action from various characters’ perspectives in every book of the series, successfully maintaining Unlimited Point of View while giving his readers different characters’ perspectives on the action. It is very effective.

Different Focus, Same Point of View

Beginning writers also often think that describing different characters is changing Point of View; so if one paragraph is about Charles, the next about Emma, and the third about Rodolphe, they believe that the author has changed Point of View. If the author has written about Charles, Emma, and Rodolphe in Unlimited Point of View, however, and not varied from that, then the author has not changed Point of View. He has also not changer perspective since he is not giving us the same events from the different characters’ views of them. He has, instead, merely changed his focus from one character to another, but he has not changed how he has written about them, so he has not changed Point of View.

The following excerpt, from the first chapter of Alexandre Dumas’ The Three Musketeers, is a description of the protagonist, D’Artagnan, written in Unlimited Point of View, which is always in the grammatical third person (he, she, it, they). Later in that chapter, when D’Artagnan meets a stranger who insults him, Dumas — still using Unlimited Point of View — changes focus but maintains the same Point of View. Though the author has shifted his focus in order to describe different characters, he has not shifted how he has written about them, so he has not changed Point of View.

Different Points of View

An author can change his focus, describing different characters, without changing his Point of View. He can change perspective, giving different versions of the same story, without changing Point of View. It is only when an author changes from First Person (I, we) to Second Person (you), First to Unlimited (he, she, it, they), etc., that he is changing Point of View.

Henry Fielding does this in his masterpiece, Tom Jones, moving frequently from Unlimited, in which the bulk of the novel is written; to First Person, in which he calls attention to himself as the author/persona; to Second Person, in which he directly addresses his audience, critics, etc. At the end of that chapter, Fielding switches from Unlimited to First Person and Second Person, as he will continue to do throughout the novel.

William Faulkner’s masterpiece of different perspectives as well as multiple Points of View, The Sound and the Fury, is divided into four sections, the first three of which are all in First Person Point of View and the last of which is in Unlimited. So his novel has two different Points of View: First and Unlimited. The first three sections, all First Person Point of View narratives, provide three different perspectives, but the author does not change Point of View.

My first novel, The Kommandant’s Mistress, is divided into three sections; but the first two, though giving different perspectives on the story, are both written in First Person Point of View: the Kommandant of the title narrates Part One, while his enslaved “mistress,” Rachel narrates Part Two. In the third section of the novel, written in a different Point of View — Unlimited, which is in the grammatical third person — readers learn things that neither the Kommandant nor Rachel, revealed (either because they didn’t know or because they were attempting to be less than forthcoming).

What is important for our purposes here is the change in Point of View in these two novels. The Point of View in Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury only changes in the final section of the novel, where the author switches from First Person to Unlimited Point of View. In The Kommandant’s Mistress, the same thing is true: only Part Three of the novel is in a different Point of View. The first two sections of the novel, since they are both written in First Person, are in the same Point of View. Since the final section of the novel switches from to Unlimited, however, it is a change in Point of View.

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FINAL WORDS ON POINT OF VIEW,
FOCUS, AND PERSPECTIVE

Point of View, then, is how the book is written, not who or what it is about. When the author describes different characters or settings but does not change how he is writing about them, then he is changing focus but maintaining the same Point of View. You can change the direction the camera is pointing — focus — or you can switch from black-and-white to color film — perspective — but to change Point of View, you would have to change the camera from a video camera to an 8mm camera. Changing Point of View changes the author’s experience of the novel as well as the readers’.

When the author gives us different versions of the same events, perhaps all written in First Person Point of View, for example, then he is giving us different perspectives, but he is not changing Point of View. Only if the author writes one section of the novel in First Person, with a narrator using “I” or “we” to tell the story, and another in Unlimited, using “he,” “she,” “it” or “they” to tell the story and moving freely both inside and outside all the characters’ heads (or writing any sections of the novel in any combination of multiple Points of View), is the author actually changing literary Point of View.

Clarity about the difference between literary Point of View, common usage of the term Point of View, focus and perspective will make your task easier when you write your novel.

 stock-photo-4792809-writer-s-deskFinal Words on Understanding Point of View

Knowing exactly what the Point of View terms actually mean will make your writing life so much easier. I encourage you to become familiar with the terms, to know what they may have sometimes been called in the past, and then concentrate on mastering Point of View itself rather than worrying obsessively about making up new names for the very few different Points of View that exist.

I realize that there are many writing teachers out there who do not know what they’re talking about, who draw bizarre diagrams about Point of View as if it were a mathematical problem or a graph, who do not even know the difference between “reliable” and “unreliable” narrators and so simply tell writers to use Unlimited Point of View, and who claim that using Multiple Points of View “simply isn’t done.” These uninformed teachers do a great disservice to their unsuspecting students.

Unfortunately, critics do it, too: they see something they’re not familiar with — as when commercial crime fiction uses a particular combination of Inner Limited Point of View when writing about criminals and their victims, and Unlimited Point of View when portraying the crime-fighters — and instead of simply calling it Multiple Points of View used in a special fashion for this genre, the critics make up names for the “new” Point of View, confusing writers who want to write commercial crime fiction.

Even authors do it, though sometimes I suspect that some of them do it to intentionally confuse critics because the authors feel insulted. For example, when asked what the symbolism of his novels and stories meant, Faulkner was known to faithfully respond that he “never used none of that there symbolism stuff” in his most drawling Southern accent. When asked what style his famous ground-breaking novel Jealousy was written in, Robbe-Grillet claimed it was written with a “omniscient third-person narrator,” which, of course, makes no sense and is, furthermore, mutually exclusive.

Yet at a writing conference once, after reading and critiquing the first 50 pages of a new writer’s novel, and telling the writer that he needed to work on Point of View since he was bouncing all over the place without any apparent reason, he told me, quite matter-of-factly, that he was using “an omniscient Second Person narrator who didn’t know everything that was going to happen.”

Indeed.

First of all, “omniscient” means “all knowing,” and that was the term formerly used for Unlimited Point of View. That means the author wants to reveal all his characters’ thoughts, feelings, history, conflicts, memories, etc. Unlimited Point of View is the only Point of View that allows an author to do this. But if the author is using Unlimited Point of View and showing his readers everything — including any moral judgments of his characters — then who or what “doesn’t know everything that’s going to happen”? Omniscient and Not Knowing Everything are, I fear, mutually exclusive. That part of his statement simply made no sense.

Additionally, First Person is the Point of View with a narrator, an “I” or “we” that is telling the story. It is a limited Point of View since all the events in the story are presented from the perspective of the narrator who is telling the story. The author is pretending to be inside the head of one character — his narrator — and relates all that character’s feelings, history, emotions, conflicts, etc. while observing the other characters’ actions and recording their dialogue. Because First Person Point of View is limited, it cannot be Unlimited at the same time: that means if the author chooses to tell the story using First Person Point of View, he has a narrator and is limited to presenting the story from “inside” that narrator’s head. Since no human being is omniscient, then omniscient and narrator are also mutually exclusive terms.

Last, Second Person Point of View directly addresses a “you” who may be many different audiences, including the author’s audience, a persona’s audience, a narrator’s audience, etc. Second Person Point of View uses the grammatical second person — you — not the first — I, we. Second Person and First Person Points of View are not the same thing. While an author can use them in combination with each other, as Henry Fielding does in Tom Jones and as Stephanie Meyer regularly does in the Twilight Saga, Second Person Point of View does not have a narrator, since the narrator of First Person Point of View uses “I” or “we.”

It’s these kind of bewildering ideas about Point of View that make new writers feel overwhelmed when writing fiction. It also prevents them from successfully mastering any Point of View since they don’t even understand the words they’re using, let alone the different Points of View.

Point of View is not that difficult to understand, and only some of the Points of View are difficult to master (e.g., Outer Limited) without ever lapsing. Successfully using multiple Points of View is a challenge for any writer because it implies a mastery of each of the different individual Points of View listed earlier in this chapter and then combining them, but it is certainly not impossible to do.

As for that writer at the conference who wanted to write a novel using “an omniscient Second Person narrator who didn’t know everything that was going to happen,” and who continued arguing with me when I attempted to explain, as politely as I could, that many of the terms he was using were mutually exclusive, I wished him luck with his writing project and sent him on his way.

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Mastering Fiction and Point of View: Create Conflict, Develop Characters, Revise Your Work, & Improve Your Craft; Revised, Updated, & Expanded, 15thAnniversary Edition © 2001, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016 by Alexandria Constantinova Szeman. (Shorter excerpt formerly included in Mastering Point of View: Using POV to Create Conflict, Depth, & Suspense. Story Press: 2001.)

May not be reproduced or distributed without the express written consent of the author or the publisher. Educators and Conference leaders may use materials with attribution to author and copyright information. Please do not support piracy of intellectual property.

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Filed under Authors, Books, Creative Writing, How to Write, How to Write a Book, Point of View, Writing, Writing & Revising

Urgency in Fiction, Part One

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If I hadn’t fallen off the mountain, I never would have believed it. Actually, I did believe it before I fell off the mountain, but the first sentence of this paragraph is an example of the most important element of fiction today — even more important to master than Point of View, which is writers seem to worry most about. Urgency. Writers need Urgency in their fiction in order to have vibrant, intriguing, publishable fiction that will keep readers buying their books.

WHAT IS URGENCY?

Urgency is what keeps the reader reading. It’s that simple. Urgency is whatever elements in the fiction make the reader want to continue turning the pages.

Do All Books Have Urgency?

Sometimes at writing conferences, students or new writers claim that many published or classic authors do not have Urgency in their works. To prove their point, they cite authors — some of them classics, some of them bestsellers — who do not have Urgency in their writing. Thus, their argument goes, they themselves should not be required to have Urgency.

It’s true that many writers do not have Urgency. But many of the classic writers they mention — Dickens, Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Shakespeare — do, indeed, have Urgency in their literary works. As for any authors from previous centuries who do not have the kind of Urgency that fiction has now, those authors would have an extremely difficult, if not impossible, time getting published now.

Many of the contemporary, well-established authors cited in this argument about authors who do not have Urgency are relying on their already established audiences and bestseller status to get them published. Apparently, as long as they continue to make money for their publishers, these authors no longer have to worry about Urgency.

(At a conference, a famous author once told the audience that when he was a beginning writer, he had to have Urgency — he called it “Intrigue” — from the very first sentence and had to write much shorter books; after several of his books became bestsellers in Europe, however, he said he could “dispense” with Urgency in the first sentence — he neglected to tell us when he did put Urgency into his work — and write books as long as he wanted them to be: many of his later books were 1,500+ pages long and were very slow reads.)

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How the Change in the Publishing Industry
Made Urgency More Important

Very few authors are lucky enough to have readers waiting in line for their next book to be published, and those authors are usually already bestsellers. Writing and publishing is an extremely competitive business. Writers are competing for readers. Writers compete with television, videos, movies, as well as with countless other authors for their audience, as well as with readers’ families, jobs, and other outside obligations for valuable reading time.

In the traditional publishing model, writers send their work to agents, who attempt to determine whether they can sell those manuscripts to editors. At the publishing houses, which have become huge conglomerates, editors look at the manuscripts and try to determine if there is a reading market for those books which will make a profit for the publishing house. Thus, there is a system in place in traditional publishing for attempting to determine which books might sell. Traditional publishing does not exist to validate a book’s merit or literary quality. Neither of the latter things are concerns of traditional publishing.

Marketing potential and profit drive the business of traditional publishing. Agents want to sell writers’ manuscripts to editors, who want to convince their editorial board at the publishing house that the book will sell on the open market. These are the things that determine whether books are accepted by agents and, in turn, by traditional publishing houses. Even if the manuscripts are accepted, if the published books do not earn an adequate amount of money for the House in a requisite time (all of which is variable and arbitrary), the book will be taken out-of-print (OP).

Now, with Print-on-Demand (POD) paper books — where books are only printed as they are ordered rather than in predetermined print-runs and warehoused until ordered by bookstores — the ubiquity of e-books, and relatively inexpensive and accessible e-readers, formerly traditionally published authors can put their OP books back out on the market themselves, without having to get an agent or another publisher. More critical in this business environment is the fact that writers who have never been through the traditional publishing system can now self-publish relatively cheaply, and they no longer have to invest huge amounts of money to print books (then store them somewhere) or persuade local bookstores to stock their titles.

Unfortunately, this equal opportunity POD and e-book publishing world now forces individual readers to wade through a great deal of bad writing in order to find the good writing. While it is true that many poorly written books are published by traditional Houses, and some of them become bestsellers, it is also true that the traditional publishing establishment does nothing to advertise any of its books. Most books rely on reviews or, more frequently, on “word of mouth” for their sales. Even before brick-and-mortar bookstores were slowly replaced by e-book and online books sales, traditional bookstores had very limited shelf-space so there was no way that any individual bookstore could even have one copy of every published book available in its store.

Given all these marketing considerations and restrictions, as well as the absolute deluge of self-published writers who do not know how to write well or to tell good stories yet are still able to put their books on the market, contemporary writers have a more challenging task than any of their predecessors ever did. Writers must master Urgency in order to tell a good story and to have a competitive chance at reaching their reading audience.images-10 copy

Urgency Must be Integral

Urgency should not be “pasted on” or simply attached to the piece of writing. It must be an integral part of it, inseparable from the plot’s conflict, character development, or Voice (characters’ or author’s). This Urgency will keep the readers clamoring for more, so it must be honest Urgency, that is, it must naturally evolve from the characters, the plot, the conflict, and the circumstances of the fiction you are writing, no matter its genre.

Urgency Is Not a New Concept

Though various authors have different names for it — suspense, mystery, or intrigue — Urgency is present is most of the enduring literary works, no matter how long ago they were written. Shakespeare’s Hamlet begins with the guards discussing a ghost who looks like Hamlet’s dead father and who appears even as the guards are talking about him, while Shakespeare’s Macbeth opens with witches chanting spells concerning the titular protagonist. Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice begins with a mother desperately trying to arrange marriages for her five daughters, preferably with wealthy men. Dostoyevsky’s Notes from Underground opens with the First Person narrator relating, “I am sick.” Urgency has always been present in the best literature, no matter its Point of View or genre. Though some bestselling, traditionally published authors may “relax” once they have established audiences and no longer include Urgency as often, most writers cannot afford to do so, no matter their work’s Point of View or genre. In any event, the best writers always consistently include Urgency in order not to lose the audience they already have acquired.

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TYPES OF URGENCY

There are three basic areas you can include Urgency in your fiction:

  • Plot, which must include conflict
  • Character Development
  • Voice

While it is possible to concentrate on Urgency in only one of these areas, you should develop Urgency in as many of these areas as possible to write a well-rounded piece of fiction that will have your readers discussing your work and its characters long after they have finished reading to see what happens.

shutterstock_243015139Urgency in Plot

Most readers initially read a book for its plot, that is, they turn pages to see how the story unfolds. The readers stay awake all night to find out how the woman handcuffed to the bed in a cabin in the wilderness will escape after her husband drops dead of a heart attack during a “sex game” (Gerald’s Game, Stephen King), or to see how the wife and her son will escape from the isolated, snow-bound hotel after her husband-caretaker has gone mad and attempted to murder them (The Shining, Stephen King). In fact, there are many published authors who are master storytellers — i.e., their plots are so compelling the reading audience cannot put the books down — without necessarily being brilliant writers: their characters may not be fully developed or their writing style may not be exceptional. Good storytellers do this with Urgency in plot, and they have mastered Urgency in this area.

Urgency is somewhat easier to develop when it is part of the plot because you must have conflict in plot, and conflict readily lends itself to Urgency. All fiction must have conflict: without it, there is no reason for the audience to continue reading. You could almost say that stories exist so that the audience may see how the characters work through the conflicts they encounter.

The earliest example we have of Urgency in storytelling in the English language is actually an epic poem in Old English written by an anonymous Anglo-Saxon author. Beowulf recounts the tale of the brave hero of the same name who comes to the aid of the king and his people in a neighboring kingdom who are under attack by the monster Grendel. Despite all the failures of the king and his best warriors to dispatch Grendel, no one but Beowulf succeeds.

Because we are not given any reasons for Beowulf’s success in destroying the monster Grendel, and, afterward, Grendel’s Mother, who comes seeking revenge, the character of Beowulf is not developed. Fifty years later, as a King himself in his own land, he fights and defeats a Dragon; in this fight, Beowulf is mortally wounded. Afterward, he is given a hero’s burial. Beowulf is presented as a successful hero from the beginning of the story, who comes to the aid of another kingdom in dire need, returns to his own land, where he becomes a king himself, and successfully defeats another monster, though he is mortally wounded in the process. A hero he begins, and a hero he remains.

It is the conflict in the plot that gives the story of Beowulf its Urgency, not its character development or Voice. Though Beowulf is considered a combination of historical characters and fictional heroic deeds, it is the plot Urgency which has kept the story interesting to subsequent generations, not its historical elements or character development.

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Conflict

It would seem, then, that Urgency in plot is essential to a writer’s success, and plot must have conflict. The traditional divisions of conflict have typically been divided into these categories:

  • man v man
  • man v himself
  • man v nature
  • man v supernatural

Of course, many stories, novellas, and novels have many of these conflicts at the same time. Moby-Dick, for example, not only pits Captain Ahab and his crew against the whale as well as the dangers of the sea itself (man v nature), but against each other, as when First Mate Starbuck argues that their “job” is to fill the hull with sperm whale oil, not seek the Captain’s vengeance (man v man); the novel also shows several instances of characters having doubts about their own behavior: Ahab, Starbuck, and the narrator Ishmael among them (man v himself).

Shakespeare’s Hamlet has the young Prince Hamlet confronting the ghost of his father (man v supernatural) who claims he was murdered by his own brother, who married his widow — Hamlet’s mother — and became the king; he asks Hamlet to avenge his murder by killing Claudius (man v man); but Hamlet, though not doubting the existence of the ghost itself, wonders whether it has been sent to him from heaven or hell, and whether Hamlet himself will be damned for committing a murder — if the ghost is a demonic spirit — or be justified in seeking revenge for his father’s murder — if the ghost is, indeed, the spirit of his father. This last conflict, man v himself, is one of the strongest in the work since it constantly causes Hamlet to doubt himself and to doubt the “evidence” that points to his uncle’s guilt.

Some critics insist that the final division above — man v supernatural — is really just man v himself since supernatural beings do not exist. They claim that even if God is an actual character in the work of fiction, it is really about the character’s belief in God, so it is man v himself conflict. Some insist that man v supernatural is nothing more than a sub-division of man v nature, but others argue that including vampires, werewolves, shape-shifters, or any other objects that do not actually exist in nature prevent its being a sub-division of man v nature. Further, some readers do believe in the existence of aliens, ghosts, and angels, while others do not. Where are these beings to be put in the traditional grouping of conflicts: in man v supernatural or in a sub-division of man v nature? I’ve chosen to include man v supernatural as a fourth category to include all possible conflict types. After all, it doesn’t matter how an author classifies his conflict, only that he include conflict in his fiction.

Plot Urgency is relatively similar no matter what Point of View you choose to write in: First Person, Inner Limited, Second Person, Unlimited — all Points of View easily encompass plot Urgency and conflict. To master Urgency in plot, you simply have to tell a good story, one whose conflicts will keep your readers’ attention. It is important to note, however, that if your readers are able to correctly guess how your story will turn out, then it loses Urgency. The story’s end must logically follow its action, of course, but readers should not be able to correctly determine the end early in the book.

No matter which Point of View you choose, you should increase the conflicts in importance and intensity throughout the novel to create Urgency in Plot and to maintain your readers’ interest. Some writers call this the “dramatic arc.” When I was studying literature — so many lifetimes ago — plot was visually represented something like a hook, or an upside-down checkmark.

The long left part of the hook was called the “rising action,” which simply meant that it was a series of conflicts increasing in intensity until the you arrived at the peak, which was called the “climax,” meaning it was the “ultimate conflict” of the work. The climax was supposed to be the conflict that all the previous conflicts had been leading up to. It was also supposed to be the final conflict in the book or story. No new conflicts were supposed to appear after that culminating conflict. Literally.

The short downward line was called the “falling action” or “the dénouement” — translation, “untying or unraveling the knot” — when all conflicts among characters were resolved, and all resolutions to the fictional world presented. The dénouement was meant to be a catharsis for the reader, releasing any remaining anxiety and tension, while eliminating difficulties for any of the characters. In short, these were the days when readers had to be reassured that they were reading a story, and, in effect, the author had to inform them how everything turned out.

Much of contemporary literature, especially in books written in series, no longer include a dénouement. For one thing, authors who write book-series typically end each book on Urgency in order to make the reader want to get the next book. In literary fiction, authors often end on Urgency because they want the endings to be ambiguous, morally questionable, or open to interpretation. As fiction itself has become more sophisticated, so has its readers — or perhaps it’s the other way around. In any event, readers no longer need an author’s reassuring dénouement at the end of a piece of fiction.

Previously, some literature or creative writing instructors used to add a flat line before the long left hook of the “rising action,” calling the flat line the “back story.” Visually, the flat line of the back story was very symbolic: nothing important happened. The back story was the history of the characters before any conflict began. As fiction became more sophisticated, readers no longer wanted to plow through endless “back story” in which nothing happened: they wanted to jump right into the action. Writers have learned to eliminate this flat plain of “back story” and weave anything of importance in the characters’ history into the story itself. Most successful fiction now starts with Urgency; thus it begins with conflict.

Final Words of Urgency in Plot

Plot and conflict can create Urgency in any Point of View, but Urgency in plot is absolutely essential in Outer Limited Point of View because the only thing the readers can know about the characters is their observable behavior and dialogue. Therefore, it is imperative that your characters do or say things to show the conflicts as well as the Urgency in plot that will keep the readers turning the pages. Since you, as the author, are limited to presenting only the external behaviors of your characters, you can master this Point of View more effectively with plot Urgency and conflict because you will have to create concrete actions, behaviors, and dialogue to present to your readers.

Note that the only conflict you cannot easily present in Outer Limited Point of View is man v himself, unless, of course, you present the character’s internal conflict in external ways. You cannot show a character arguing with himself, for example, unless he does it aloud. You cannot show any characters’ inner emotional or psychological life in Outer Limited Point of View, so you will have to work harder to show the inner conflict in an external manner. Read Alain Robbe-Grillet’s Jealousy for excellent examples of presenting plot urgency in Outer Limited Point of View.

If you are writing books in a series, remember that each book has to have its own increasing conflicts and the series itself has to have separate increasing conflicts. Many authors make the mistake of writing an incredible first book in a series, with a tremendous plot, full of great conflict and Urgency, then write subsequent books where the plot slows down tremendously (the books also often get shorter) and the Urgency virtually disappears. Make sure, also, that no plot holes remain in the series.rds092086

Urgency in Character Development

Urgency in character development can be integrally related to Point of View. Character development Urgency is most challenging in Unlimited Point of View since the author can provide the readers with any and all interpretations of the characters and their actions, thus leaving nothing for the readers to explore. Still, as I explained earlier, there is a difference between an author’s knowing everything and revealing everything about his characters in Unlimited Point of View. That means you can put sufficient character development Urgency in Unlimited Point of View by not revealing everything about the characters to the readers from the very beginning.

In First Person and Inner Limited Points of View, the readers are restricted to viewing the world from one character’s perspective. Since only this character’s emotions, thoughts, and motivations will be revealed to the readers, these Points of View automatically can set up Urgency in character development, both for the characters through whose perspective we view the action and for the other characters in the novel, all of whom are presented externally. Whatever the protagonist does not know about other characters in the novel in these Points of View, for instance, the readers cannot know. That creates character development Urgency.

Outer Limited Point of View creates the greatest opportunity for character development Urgency since the author is not revealing any interior or hidden motives. Because only the external life of all the characters is presented, readers are greatly involved in figuring out the causes for the characters’ behavior. Unless you present the character’s secret desires and ulterior motives in a spoken monologue, as is done in theater, for example, the readers will not know why the character is behaving in a certain way. That creates character development Urgency because the readers will want to continue reading the novel to understand the character.

Unfortunately, Outer Limited Point of View also has the greatest chance of alienating some readers for the very reason it can be most interesting to the author. Since readers must figure out everything about the characters’ inner lives for themselves, based on the author’s depiction of the characters’ external behavior, the readers may get frustrated or may misinterpret the characters’ behavior. Outer Limited Point of View is always extremely challenging to an author, but revealing character development Urgency in this Point of View is very demanding.

Final Words of Urgency in Character Development

All Points of View lend themselves to character development, of course, so the trick to learning Urgency in character development is to let your characters deal with the conflicts which confront them in the fiction in the way that the characters would do so, rather than the way you yourself might personally deal with such conflicts (or with how you think you would deal with them). This will help you not only develop your characters and increase Urgency, but will prevent you from writing the same story over and over.

If you are writing literary fiction or another type of book that stands alone, then all the character development Urgency must appear in that single work. If you are writing a series, then the character development can take place over several books in the series. To maintain Urgency, however, you should be careful to spread the character development out relatively evenly over the books: don’t save it all for the final book in the series or your readers will never make it there.

Be sure that you answer any questions about character relationships and development over the course of the series: sometimes authors set up fantastic Urgency in character development in the first book of a series, then seem to forget about it completely. This leaves “holes” in the relationships that can detract from Urgency since the readers will wonder about the characters and their development. Most specifically, readers will wonder why you didn’t tell them everything about the characters’ natures, relationships, histories, conflicts, etc. You need to be highly aware of those things when writing series so that the Urgency in character development is maintained over the entire group of books.

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Urgency in Voice

A distinctive or unusual Voice, whether a narrator’s, protagonist’s, or an author’s, usually doesn’t appear until the author has mastered Point of View. However, you can understand the concept without being proficient at creating it. When the Voice in a piece of literature has Urgency, it is the Voice itself that makes the audience want to continue reading. Zora Neale Hurston’s “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” is an example of wonderful Urgency in Voice, as is the opening of Dostoyevsky’s Notes from the Underground and Melville’s Moby Dick. The first two examples cited are in First Person Point of View; Moby-Dick is in multiple Points of View.

Urgency in Voice is directly related to Point of View, and many writers find it easier to have Urgency in voice when writing in First Person Point of View. This ease may be due to the intimate bond created when readers hear the narrator’s words. However, it is also possible to have voice Urgency in other Points of View, as Hemingway’s novels demonstrate and as the excerpts cited above demonstrate. In Unlimited Point of View, it is the protagonist’s or the author’s distinctive Voice that creates the Urgency rather than a narrator’s.

Urgency in Plot, Character Development, and Voice

Ideally, a great piece of fiction would manage to maintain Urgency in all three areas, keeping the reader turning pages not only because of the fast-moving plot with its increasing conflicts, as well as the interesting characters, but because of an intriguing Voice. Most works do maintain Urgency in plot and in character development. Because Voice is the most difficult to attain, in any Point of View, it is also the most challenging in which to maintain Urgency in a work of fiction.

Final Words of Urgency in Voice

While Urgency in Voice may be the most difficult to attain, no matter which Point of View you choose to write in, it can also be the most artistically rewarding, both for the authors and the readers. I encourage you to read works that have strong Voice, whether a narrator’s, a protagonist’s, or an author’s; to listen to different dialects, slang, and idiolects; and to learn how to reproduce different Voices in writing in various Points of View to master Voice. Remember, too, that Urgency in Voice does not have to be separate from Urgency in plot or character development. In fact, ideally, all three would be combined.

If you are writing a literary book, of course you do not have to repeat the same Voice in subsequent books. If you do, it will ultimately be considered as the author’s Voice rather than as a narrator’s or protagonist’s Voice if you use the same one in every book you write. If you are writing a series, however, then you should retain the same Voice throughout all the books in the series, as C. L. Bevill does in the Bubba Series. The Voice, in that instance, is one of the things that ties the books together.shutterstock_169955744

HOW OFTEN SHOULD YOU INCLUDE URGENCY?

The most important thing to remember in creating urgency, no matter what Point of View you’re writing your novel in, is that any place you might lose the reader’s attention is a place you need to have urgency. Here are my suggestions for Urgency placement:

  • the first sentence
  • the last sentence of the first paragraph
  • at the beginning and end of each chapter
  • at the beginning and end of each section, if your novel is divided into sections
  • any time you change narrators or Points of View (these could be considered informal section divisions, so you should have urgency at the beginning and end of each, even if the section division is not formal)
  • periodically throughout the novel
  • the end of a novel if it is in a series, or if you want the ending to be ambiguous or open to various interpretations

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EXERCISES TO DEVELOP URGENCY

1. Imagine that you’re at a party and by chance you meet an agent or an editor. You’ve just finished your novel, and you’re dying to get an agent or editor to look at your work. Now, you don’t want to be too obnoxious, so you don’t hit the agent/editor with the fact that you’re an aspiring fiction writer right away. After all, it’s a party. But eventually the topic comes up, and since the agent/editor is so impressed that you didn’t try to shove your novel down his throat, he actually asks you want your novel is about. You have only one sentence with which to capture the agent’s/editor’s attention and make him beg you to send the novel. This is called The Pitch. Write the one sentence that gets him interested in your novel. Make sure it has Urgency. Show it to your readers. Ask them if they’d want to see the whole book based on that one sentence. If so, congratulations: you have Urgency. (You can also use this sentence after your novel gets published. Since it’s usually about a year to eighteen months from the time a book gets sold to the time it’s available at bookstores, you’ll have plenty of time to “sell” your novel by using this sentence.) If this Pitch works, memorize it and be able to give it quickly and smoothly whenever anyone asks you what your book is about.

2. Pretend you work for TV Guide, DirecTV, or Dish TV, where employees — many of whom are aspiring writers — have to watch movies and television episodes, then write a one-sentence Pitch that gets the viewer interested in watching it. I’m sure you’ve seen the ones where the writers thought the movies were stupid: they sound stupid in the description. Often, the endings are given away, as in “A small group of humans in an isolated Alaskan town fight a losing battle against marauding Zombies.” Since you know the humans lose, there’s no point in watching it. Pick any famous or well-known movie or television show and write the one-sentence description or Pitch for it, containing Urgency, which will make the viewers want to watch it, without giving away the ending.

3. Pick any fairy tale, folk tale, or otherwise well known story and write the one-sentence description-Pitch for it, making its potential audience want to read it; be sure to include Urgency without giving away the ending.

4. Pick any of the following opening sentences and write the first paragraph that follows. Be sure to maintain Urgency throughout the paragraph as well as in the final sentence. After you have completed it, show it to your readers for their suggestions and feedback.

  • The woman held the framed picture in her hand without looking at it.
  • The man with the shovel stood in the rain.
  • “You were there from the beginning,” s/he said, “so you can tell everyone the truth.”
  • “I wasn’t the one who started it.”
  • The man was in the alley, urinating against the wall. (Feel free to change the diction to fit your paragraph better)
  • The story starts with a man in an alley, urinating against the wall. (Feel free to change the diction to fit your paragraph better)
  • He was exactly as she thought he’d be. (Feel free to reverse genders.)
  • She had no choice but to do what her parents expected.

Read excerpts from
Mastering Fiction & Point of View

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from Mastering Point of View: Using POV & Fiction Elements to Create Conflict, Develop Characters, Revise your Work, & Improve Your Craft; Revised, Updated, & Expanded; 20th Anniversary Edition; © 2001, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2017 by Alexandria Constantinova Szeman (originally published by Story Press, 2001). All rights reserved. Please do not quote or excerpt without accompanying copyright information.

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Filed under Creative Writing, How to Write, How to Write a Book, Point of View, Writing, Writing & Revising