Category Archives: Indie Authors

A Week in the Life of a Writer (and a Peek Inside My Office)


I’ve wanted to be a writer all my life, or, at least, from the age of 6. By the time I was 12, I was writing stories, making covers, stapling them into little books, and offering these limited editions for sale for 25¢. Unfortunately, I had no buyers (or readers, for that matter), and those rare first-and-only editions have been lost. As an adult, when I switched from writing poetry to writing novels (and non-fiction books), I quickly learned that I couldn’t write only when inspiration dropped down out of the heavens. I needed to write as much as possible, preferably full-time.

I was a Professor at the time, and I was already writing full-time during the summer — during which teachers do not get paid unless they divide their 9-month salary over the entire 12 months of the year — as well as on holidays and weekends. I’d been trying to write my first novel on those holidays, weekends, and summers, and it took me an entire 9 months just to get the first chapter done.

I needed to write full-time.

But how was I doing to do it?

I got the brilliant idea of asking the bank for a loan. I lived in a small village where there were lots of artists, writers, musicians, professional singers, etc., so I thought the manager at the local branch might be more likely to approve a loan that was going to support a local artist.

When I applied for the bank loan, I’d been writing poems and non-fiction articles — and getting published in prestigious literary and University journals — for almost 15 years. My Vita of publications was already quite impressive, even though I had not yet published any books.

The bank manager knew who I was, apparently, and had heard that I was a good writer. With a letter from my University saying that I would have my job after I took 9 months off, without pay, and after putting both my house and my new car down as collateral, the manager approved the loan.

I borrowed $11K at 18 ⅞% interest, totaling over $18K for nine months off work. (I couldn’t take an entire year off because borrowing my entire year’s salary would have made the monthly payment out of reach on my budget. I settled for 9 months off work, which was technically a school year, and took off from March to December.)

Of course, once the bank approved the loan, I went home and promptly threw up, cried for a couple hours, then hyperventilated for a few hours more. I guess I never really believed anyone would actually let me borrow the money to take a year off work and write.

I was scared out of my wits.

I’d already signed the papers, so there was no turning back. I deposited the money, made out a budget, and then took off work to write full-time.

You know what happened next?

The first month of writing full-time, I didn’t write a single word.

Not a one.

Instead, I spent the entire month just thinking about the book I wanted to write.

Four weeks later, after I realized that it has just cost me $2K to think about writing for an entire month, I began to really and truly panic.

My best friend listened to me whine and cry and panic, and then she gave me some excellent advice: “How about you think about writing while at your desk,” she said, “with a pen in your hand, poised over a piece of paper?”

I never once thought she was being sarcastic or non-supportive. She loved me and wanted me to succeed. Furthermore, what she said made perfect sense.

“Pretend it’s your job,” she said, “because, for the remaining 8 months, it is your job. Get up at the same time every morning, get dressed, be at your desk, ready to write by, let’s say, 9:00. Work until noon. Take half an hour for lunch. Go back to work until 5:00, at least.”

That’s what I began to do: treat writing as my job.

My full-time job.

At the beginning, I was writing (starting with an outline) only about 2-3 hours a day. The rest of the day, I was exploring my characters and doing additional research (it was a novel set during World War II and The Holocaust).

About six months later, I was actually writing 10-14 hours a day, forgetting to eat, waking up from sleep with new scenes in my head, and getting up to write those new scenes.

It was a wonderful 9 months, if only because I proved to myself that I could actually write full-time — with no assurance of any reward whatsoever from the outside world. All my reward came from the writing itself during that sabbatical. I learned, without any doubt, that writing full-time was what I wanted to do for the rest of my life.

Unfortunately, the finances of traditional publishing didn’t work out in a way that permitted me to become a full-time writer even after my first book was accepted and published by HarperCollins and sold to foreign publishers around the world. I won lots of awards and got a great deal of critical attention, but I was not a bestseller. I had to keep my University job, even while I was writing virtually full-time on my subsequent books.

I constantly kept thinking that, with the next book, I could quit my University job and write full-time.

It was a lovely dream.

One that, unfortunately, didn’t come true until I retired, after 31 years of being a University Professor.

Still, it finally happened, and since the present is the only time we ever really have, the only important thing for my life is that now I do write full-time.

My writing does not support me: it doesn’t even pay the cost of my writing supplies, let alone pay the cost of software, computers, etc. (Full disclosure here: I made $604 from my books last year.) I actually live, very frugally, on my meager retirement income. (I paid off all my debts the last 10 years that I was teaching so that I could afford to write full-time.)

And that’s the important thing: I am writing full-time now, at last, for the rest of my life.

It’s not glamorous, it’s not easy, it’s sometimes frustrating trying to keep up with all the technological changes in the industry, but it’s what I always wanted to do. Writing full-time is the hardest work I’ve ever done in my entire life, and I absolutely love it.

In case some of you would like to know what it’s like to write full-time, and not as a best-selling celebrity author who can afford to hire marketers, managers, publicists, etc., I thought I’d give you some insight into a typical week of writing for me by posting this week’s writing schedule. (I think it’s dreadfully boring, so don’t say I didn’t warn you.)

I get my reward from the writing itself. If you want to write full-time, that should probably be the only “reward” you expect, too, since it’s the only one over which you have any control.

In any event, without further ado, but with one last warning that the rest of this post might put you to sleep, here’s what a typical week writing full-time is like in my life.

Some of the milk crate bookcases, from floor to ceiling, on three walls of my tiny office


5:30-6:30 a.m.
Give cats and doggie their breakfast (canned food — dry food out for them all day), give cats who are on medication their meds, meditate, do T’ai Chi, make coffee, have coffee with my guy

6:30-7:30  a.m.
Answer all Mentions and Notifications on Twitter while walking on the treadmill in my office. (Obviously, I’m using my laptop.)

7:30-9:30 a.m.
Participate in #MondayBlogs. This is one of my priorities on Mondays. Most weeks, I write my own blog all day on Sunday so that I can devote myself fully to the blogs I’m RTing on Monday. I read every blog that I pass along to my followers, and I try to be on Twitter on and off all day on Mondays, so I don’t miss anything important. I eat my homemade breakfast bar and have my coffee while reading and RTing #MondayBlogs.

9:30 a.m.-12:45  p.m.
Writing: Right now, I’m working on revisions for the 2nd edition of one of my books. I’ve actually finished writing the revisions themselves (that took three months), and I’m typing them in, proofreading, updating Index, getting pages correct, proofreading again, etc.

12:45-1:00 p.m.
Lunch, pet all the cats, pet doggie

1:00-1:15  p.m.
Read and answer most important email. I can’t get to it all every day: I get about 2K emails a day.

1:15-7:00  p.m.
Writing: working on revisions for 2nd edition of book

7:00-7:15  p.m.
Eat dinner with my guy

7:15-8:30 p.m.
Read and RT more #MondayBlogs

8:30 p.m.
Say “goodnight” to all the cats, the doggie, and my guy

8:30-9:00  p.m.

9:00 p.m.

My printers (b&w laser jet for manuscripts, color laser for making covers for books), on the edge of my writing desk: an 8′ solid wood door, on file cabinets. I’ve had this desk since I was 22


5:30-6:30 a.m.
Serve cats and doggie breakfast, give cats their meds, meditate, do T’ai Chi, make coffee, have coffee with my guy

6:30-7:30  a.m.
Answer Mentions and Notifications on Twitter, while walking on the treadmill

7:30 a.m. – 3:00 p.m.
Writing: working on revisions for 2nd edition of book

3:00-7:30 p.m.
T’ai Chi class and Kundalini Yoga Class

7:30-8:00  p.m.  
Dinner with my guy

8:00-8:30  p.m.  

8:30  p.m.  

A few of the reference books I keep on the end of my writing desk, opposite end of the printers


5:30-6:30 a.m.
Serve cats/doggie breakfast, give cat meds, meditate, do T’ai Chi, make coffee, have coffee with my guy

6:30-7:30  a.m.
Answer Mentions and Notifications on Twitter, while walking on the treadmill

7:30 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.
Writing: working on revisions for 2nd edition of book

4:00-5:00  p.m.  
Answer Mentions and Notifications on Twitter

5:00-7:00  p.m.  
Scheduling posts in my social media accounts (Twitter, Facebook, Google+) with Buffer app. I read every blog post or article before I put it in my feed

7:00-7:30  p.m.  
Dinner with my guy

7:30-8:00  p.m.  

8:00 p.m.

One side of my writing desk, with journals, in which I write long-hand, my current work-in-progress. (My published books [US versions only] are in the upper left corner)


5:30-6:30 a.m.
Serve cats/doggie breakfast, give cat meds, meditate, do T’ai Chi, make coffee, have coffee with my guy

6:30-7:30  a.m.
Answer Mentions and Notifications on Twitter, while walking on the treadmill

7:30  a.m.-12:30 p.m.
Writing: working on revisions for 2nd edition of book

12:30-1:00  p.m.  
Answer Facebook notifications, Twitter Mentions & Notifications

1:00-1:15  p.m.  

1:15-5:oo p.m.
Writing blog post for Friday

5:00-5:30  p.m.  
Dinner with my guy

5:30-7:30  p.m.  
Research for my upcoming #MondayBlogs post

7:30-8:00  p.m.  

8:00 p.m.

The opposite side of my writing desk, with my laptop, and currently, with financial paperwork (for taxes)


5:30-6:30 a.m.
Serve cats/doggie breakfast, give cat meds, meditate, do T’ai Chi, make coffee, have coffee with my guy

6:30-7:30  a.m.
Answer Mentions and Notifications on Twitter, while walking on the treadmill

7:30-8:30  a.m.
My Writing Friday on Twitter

8:30-10:00  a.m.
Answer Mentions & Notifications on Twitter

10:00 a.m. – noon
Researching artist for this week’s Art Saturday on Twitter

12:00-12:15  p.m.  

12:15-6:00 p.m.
Research for my upcoming #MondayBlogs post

6:00-7:00  p.m.  
Answer notifications and Mentions on Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter

7:00-7:30  p.m.  
Dinner with my guy

7:30-8:00  p.m.  

8:00 p.m.

A few of the reference books I keep on the end of my writing desk, opposite end of the printers


5:30-6:30 a.m.
Serve cats/doggie breakfast, give cat meds, meditate, do T’ai Chi, make coffee, have coffee with my guy

6:30-7:00  a.m.
Answer Mentions and Notifications on Twitter, while walking on the treadmill in my office

7:00-9:00 a.m.
My Art Saturday on Twitter (a different artist every week)

9:00-10:00  a.m.
Answer Mentions & Notifications on Twitter

10:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.
Research for my #MondayBlogs post

1:00-1:15  p.m. 

1:15-7:00 p.m. 
Research for my #MondayBlogs post

7:00-7:30 p.m. 
Dinner with my guy

7:30-8:00 p.m. 

8:00 p.m.

My computer desk, in front of the window that looks out across the porch, down Big Rock Candy Mountain into Valley: I’ve always had my writing desk in front of a window


5:30-6:30 a.m.
Serve cats/doggie breakfast, give cat meds, meditate, do T’ai Chi, make coffee, have coffee with my guy

6:30-7:30  a.m.
Answer Mentions and Notifications on Twitter, while walking on the treadmill in my office

7:30 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.
Write my own #MondayBlogs post

5:00-5:30 p.m.
Dinner with my guy

5:30-7:30 p.m. 
Mentions & Notifications on Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter; start RTing #MondayBlogs on Twitter

7:30-8:00 p.m. 

8:00 p.m.

More of my milk crate bookshelves (this wall is fuschia since I ran out of white ones)

Wowza. How incredibly dull my typical week is.

It looks even worse than I thought it would now that I’ve written it all down.

The important thing, though, is that I’m writing full-time, and that’s what makes me happy. I spend about 8-10 hours writing every day, either on my books or on my blogs, and that doesn’t count any of the time I spend on social media. That’s more than 40 hours a week, so that’s writing full-time.

When I’m actually writing a new book, or revising it the first few times, as opposed to updating a new edition of a book that’s already been published, I spend a bit less time on social media and a bit more on the actual writing (which I usually do by sleeping less).

And in case you think that social media has taken writers’ time away from them, that time was previously spent telephoning/emailing editors, agents, and publicists, and marketing your books locally (traditional publishers don’t do that).

My treadmill, in front of more of my bookcases in my way-too-crowded and tiny office

What do you think, my Lovelies?

Still want to be a full-time writer?

If you do, then just start following a serious writing schedule on your weekends and during any vacations. You’ll be writing full-time on those days, even if not all year ’round, and you’ll get to see what it’s really like.

Please do let me know how it goes.


Filed under Authors, Blogging, Indie Authors, Memoir, Real Life of a Writer, Self-Published Authors, Tweeting, Writing, Writing & Revising

Pitch Your Book


Agent: Pitch me your book.
Author: What?
Agent: Tell me what it’s about in one sentence. Make me want to read it.
Author: You have to read the book to know what it’s about.
Agent: No, you have to Pitch it. You have 4 minutes left.
Author: It’s about loss.
Agent: What kind of loss?
Author: All kinds.
Agent: Loss of life? Loss of money? Loss of love? Help me out here.
Author: It’s about all kinds of loss. And love.
Agent: What kind of love? Family love? Married love? Platonic love?
Author: All kinds.
Agent: Time’s up.

That is a verbatim interaction, and it happened at a Writing Conference. The unpublished writer kept insisting that the agent had to read the entire manuscript to know what it was about. Obviously, the author didn’t understand the all-important Pitch. Writers have to metaphorically “sell” their manuscripts to agents, editors, and readers. Writers do that with a Pitch. Even if you’ve been traditionally published before, you’ll probably have to Pitch each new book to your agent or editor — unless you’re a bestseller — so learning how to Pitch a book is one of the most important things writers ever do. It takes some practice, but you can learn how to Pitch your work effectively by following a few guidelines.

• The best Pitch has Urgency, because without Urgency, it won’t get anyone’s attention.
(If you don’t know what Urgency is, read my posts on Urgency Pt 1 and Pt 2.)
• A Pitch should ideally be one sentence.
(It doesn’t have to be short, but don’t make it too very long.)
• It should fit only one individual book.
• It should not reveal the ending.
(Though it may seem obvious that a Pitch should not give away the ending, you’d be surprised how many writers ruin their Pitch this way.)

Now, let’s analyze some weak and strong Pitches. The following Pitches are not very successful (these are real Pitches to agents and editors) because each Pitch should be concise, unique, and attention-grabbing.

It’s a rags-to-riches tale.
It’s a Cinderella tale.
It’s a coming-of-age story.
It’s about love.
It’s about loss.
It’s about my uncle the dentist.
It’s about my life.

All those are too vague.
And the one alluding to Cinderella gives away the HEA ending as well.

In Hollywood, it’s common for people Pitching a new show or film to compare the project to previously financially successful shows and films. The Hollywood people listening to the Pitches don’t have to have seen the films mentioned: all the producers have to know is whether or not the films made money. Book Pitches that mimic Hollywood film Pitches compare themselves to other successful books or authors. This type of Pitch can be either too vague or too narrowly specific. Either way, it will fail.

Love Kay Scarpetta? Missing Mitch Rapp? Do Clancy and Grisham make your day? Check out [Author]: she won’t disappoint.

This Pitch doesn’t compare authors to authors, or books to books, or even characters to characters. Instead, it mixes fictional characters with authors, but not with the authors who created the aforementioned fictional characters. Further, if a reader don’t know any of those names, he won’t read the book. This Pitch is trying to capitalize on characters from bestselling books, as well as on bestselling genre authors, but it’s too generalized, vague, and mixed-genre to work.

This could this be the next 50 Shades except it’s darker, rougher, more graphic, and more intense than 50 Shades of Grey.

This Pitch is very specific, and it might work for readers of the bestseller, but not if they don’t like “darker, rougher, more graphic” sexual scenes. For anyone who hasn’t read the original book it’s modeling itself after, the Pitch makes no sense.

He’s Dexter, if Dexter was a professionally trained covert espionage agent with a wicked sense of humor.

This Pitch mixes the character of a television show, with whom readers may not be familiar, with the unnamed “He” of the Pitch, and says “he’s Dexter, if Dexter was…” all the things that Dexter apparently is not. I’ve never seen Dexter though I’ve heard of it. All I know is that he’s a cop or detective or some other law enforcement person who’s really a serial killer. So I know absolutely nothing about this book. Worse, I don’t want to.

For fans of Nalini Singh
• If you enjoy Michael Crichton, Philip K. Dick, or Robert Ludlum, you need to read this book
• Twilight meets Outlander

These all fail for the same reasons: if the reader doesn’t recognize the authors, the books, or the genres, the Pitch doesn’t succeed at selling.

Even worse than these weak Pitches, however, is the trend among self-published authors to attempt to use subtitles as Pitches. These authors end up with subtitles that are neither Pitches nor subtitles, but merely a list of genres or buzzwords.

An Electrifying Whodunit
• A Supernatural Boarding School
• A Paranormal Time-Travel Espionage Romance
• A Compelling Action-Packed Military Adventure Crime-Thriller Suspense Mystery
• A Well-Written Cheeky Frontier Cowboy Historical Western Erotic Inspirational Christmas Romance
• Gritty Action and Heartfelt Drama Meets Alien Adventurers And Conspiracy Theorists
• Twists, Turns, Greed, Gunfights, Romance, and Espionage. What More Could You Want?
• A Gripping, Thrilling, Bang-up Financial Mystery That Stops You In Your Tracks!
• A Dark Brutal Psychological Thriller Suspense With A Twist You Won’t See Coming That Will Keep You Guessing Till The End!!!

Yeppers, those subtitles, complete with all the exclamation points at the end, are desperately trying to be Pitches because they’re attempting to “sell” the books to the readers. I think the authors are also trying to review their own books in the subtitles, but I’m not sure. I’m guessing you already know why these wannabe Pitches don’t work.

Now you’ve seen the most obvious things that doom a book’s Pitch: vagueness, lack of Urgency, unfamiliar allusions, genre lists, faux review buzzwords.

What makes a successful Pitch? It is unique: it fits only that one book, not even another book by the same author. It has Urgency, which is what makes the reader want to find out more. It’s one sentence long. It does not reveal the ending.

Here are some successful Pitches, most written by traditionally published authors or their editors, but some written by Indie authors. (These Pitches were at the beginning of the book’s back cover editorial review; I’ve edited the punctuation in a couple places.)

• When a woman’s body is discovered submerged in a crab pot in the chilly waters of Puget Sound, Detective Tracy Crosswhite finds herself with a tough case to untangle. (The Trapped Girl, Robert Dugoni)

• In 1939 Nazi Germany, Death has never been busier… and Liesel Meminger is a foster girl living outside of Munich, who scratches out a meager existence for herself by stealing something she can’t resist: books. (The Book Thief, Markus Zusak)

• On a warm summer morning in North Carthage, Missouri, it is Nick and Amy Dunne’s fifth wedding anniversary: presents are being wrapped and reservations are being made when Nick’s clever and beautiful wife disappears. (Gone Girl, Gillian Flynn)

• Rachel Jenner is walking in a Bristol park with her eight-year-old son, Ben, when he asks if he can run ahead: it’s an ordinary request on an ordinary Sunday afternoon, and Rachel has no reason to worry — until Ben vanishes. (What She Knew, Gilly MacMillan)

Here are a few more successful Pitches. I read most of these when I was teaching University students or writers at conferences to Pitch their work. I received some as an editor. (Most of these Pitches belonged to books that were then traditionally published.)

• If you knowed the truth about me, and about what I done, you wouldn’t be the first to spit in my face, and then order me to explain myself right quick.

• On a regular day that should be as uneventful as the rest, Lorena sees her business partner murdered: now who will keep her safe?

• “My name is Holden,” and you probably know me already from the famous book about me, Catcher in the Rye, by my pal JD, but I doubt if you know my most secret story.

• Conrad has spent his life looking for answers to the questions that haunt all of us: Who are we? Why are we here? Where are we going? Who first thought of putting a corn-breaded hotdog on a stick to deep-fry it, and why?

• Lies, manipulation, and murder are everyday occurrences in the world of espionage, but when Agent Jennifer Raye is forced to work with her former lover to stop the delivery of a weapon to a terrorist nation, she fears one of them will not survive.

• I loved him more than I loved myself, and that was why I had to kill him.

• When four rape victims come to Ben Pace — a Lakhota healer — Ben is given the task to help these women seek justice while, at the same time, aid them in their healing process. (How the Strong Survive, Newton Love)

• At Frank’s Roadhouse in Half Moon Bay in December 1930, the good life of the Roaring Twenties is still in full swing until a blackmailer begins targeting Frank’s wealthy and well-known clientele. (Roadhouse Affairs, Newton Love)

You’ve seen some Pitches that fail, and you know why they don’t work. You’ve seen some Pitches that succeed — for agents, editors, and for general readers. You’re ready to start writing your own. These tips can help you write the strongest, most marketable Pitch possible:

• include Urgency
• say it in one sentence
• tailor it for only one book
• don’t give away the ending

With practice, you should be able to write reasonably successful Pitches for your books. Be sure to try the Pitches out on family, friends, colleagues, neighbors, and co-workers who have not read the entire book. Once you have a successful Pitch — one that makes people say, “Wow, I want to read that. Where can I get a copy?” — then you should memorize it in order to be able to effortlessly deliver it whenever someone asks you what your book is about. You need the Pitch before and after a book is published. If you’re querying an agent or editor, put your Pitch at the start of the query letter. If you’re self-publishing, the Pitch should be at the start of your “editorial description / editorial review.”

Want me to look at your Pitch? I’d be happy to. But please don’t put it in comments, on the twitter, or on the book of face, because all my accounts are public. Send your Pitch to me via the Contact form, and I’ll let you know if I’d want to read more of the book when it got published.

Related Posts

Urgency in Fiction: Part One

Urgency in Fiction: Part Two

No Demons, No Saints:
Creating Realistic Characters

Writing Effective Dialogue

Who’s Afraid of Point of View?

Myths About Point of View

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Filed under Books, Creative Writing, Indie Authors, Writing & Revising

Urgency in Fiction, Part Two


If you haven’t read “Urgency in Fiction, Part One,” I’d suggest that you start there: otherwise, this blog post, which is a continuation of that one, won’t make much sense. Part One was about the types of Urgency and putting it into the actual fiction you are writing.

Though these posts are aimed at fiction writers — since they are excerpts from the upcoming Mastering Fiction & Point of View: Create Conflict, Develop Characters, Revise Your Work, & Improve Your Craft; Revised, Updated, & Expanded; 14th Anniversary Edition of the original 2001 Mastering Point of View, published by Story Press — the concept of Urgency applies to all types of writing, from non-fiction to poetry, from screenplays to memoir. Because the first edition of the book was aimed at fiction writers, the revised version is, too.

This post is about how editors in the Traditional Publishing Land of New York use it in titles as marketing tools — which is their job — and how you can learn to do it, too. There are plenty of examples from Indie and self-published authors here. If they can do it, so can you.

And by the way, no one taught me about Urgency when I began to write fiction. Another writer I knew who was accepted into a prestigious MFA program read one of her stories in class — a story that I’d read and liked a lot — and was blasted by the professor in front of the entire class. The writer was told that she needed to put something in her story that would make it “a lot more urgent.” When she asked the professor what he meant, he said, “You’ll have to figure that out yourself.”

Since she knew that I’d borrowed $18K at 17 7/8% interest from the bank to take a year off work, without pay, to write my first novel, she passed that “message” along to me via a mutual friend. So I had to figure out exactly what the professor meant by making fiction “a lot more urgent.” It took me a while, but eventually I figured it out, coined “Urgency” as its name, wrote my first article on it at the request of editor Sylvia Burack (for The Writer, in 1997) and have been passing it on to writers ever since.

The original article has also been anthologized in many books and other magazines, including those published by Writer’s Digest Press, so you may have seen shorter version of it there, or on my website, under Mastering Point of View since a shortened version appeared in the first edition of that book.

Urgency in Titles

In traditional publishing, the contracts give the editors the final say on the title of an author’s book — because the title is part of marketing, and that is the editor’s job. All authors can learn to put Urgency into their own titles, however, so that they do not get changed by the publishing house.

Urgency in titles is also vitally important if the author is Indie publishing since he’ll have no editor helping him make his book more marketable by making the title have Urgency.

Here are some examples of titles which have Urgency, randomly chosen from a variety of genres, including short fiction, novels, plays, memoir, and non-fiction since all titles must have Urgency to get readers’ attention.

  • My Date With Satan (Stacy Richter)
  • Church of Dead Girls (Stephen Dobyns)
  • The Killer Inside Me (Jim Thompson)
  • I Married a Dead Man (Cornell Woolrich)
  • Waiting to Exhale (Terry McMillan)
  • Possessing the Secret of Joy (Alice Walker)
  • The Killing Gift (Bari Wood)
  • Of Human Bondage (W. Somerset Maugham)
  • The Man in the Iron Mask (Alexandre Dumas)
  • A Good Man is Hard to Find (Flannery O’Connor)
  • Cracking India (Bapsi Sidhwa)
  • As I Lay Dying (William Faulkner)
  • A Streetcar Named Desire (Tennessee Williams)
  • Girl, Interrupted (Susanna Kaysen)
  • Me Talk Pretty One Day (David Sedaris)

A trip to your local bookstore or library — or a scan online — will reveal an exciting array of titles.  Some are good; some aren’t. Unless the authors are already bestsellers, however, only the titles with Urgency are likely to attract readers.

 images-4 copy 3

Urgency in Classic Opening Lines

Most stories and books, no matter when they were written, contain Urgency. And they have it in the very first sentence, despite what some neophyte writers believe. Look at the wonderful Urgency in these classic opening lines, in various Points of View.

  • I looked at my notes and I didn’t like them. (Isaac Asimov, I, Robot)
  • It must have been a little after three o’clock in the afternoon that it happened. (Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Land That Time Forgot)
  • Looking back to all that has occurred to me since that eventful day, I am scarcely able to believe in the reality of my adventures. (Jules Verne, A Journey to the Center of the Earth)
  • It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. (Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice)
  • All happy families resemble one another, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. ( Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina)
  • They found me in the gutter. (Mickey Spillane, The Girl Hunters)
  • Once upon a time when the world was young there was a Martian named Smith. (Robert A. Heinlein, Stranger in a Strange Land)

Though the concept of Urgency may have been called different things in the past, or may not have even been called anything at all by the earliest storytellers, it’s always existed, and it exists to keep the readers (or the listening audience, when storytelling was oral, before books were readily available) attached to the story to find out what happens.

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Urgency in Contemporary Opening Sentences

Most fiction, whether contemporary or classic, starts with Urgency. That means in the very first sentence. Some authors call it a “hook,” and some call it the “attention-grabber,” but it’s all Urgency by other names. It gets the reader’s attention and makes him want to continue reading. Look at the opening sentences of some contemporary novels, and you’ll find wonderful examples of Urgency.

  • When I was little I would think of ways to kill my daddy. (Kaye Gibbons, Ellen Foster)
  • Mr. and Mrs. Dursley, of number four, Privet Drive, were proud to say that they were perfectly normal, thank you very much. (J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone)
  • They shoot the white girl first. (Toni Morrison, Paradise)
  • When I was a young lad twenty or thirty or forty years ago I lived in a small town where they were all after me on account of what I done on Mrs. Nugent. (Patrick McCabe, The Butcher Boy)
  • Throughout the long summer before my mother’s trial began, and they during those crisp days in the fall when her life was paraded publicly before the county — her character lynched, her wisdom impugned — I overheard much more than my parents realized, and I understood more than they would have liked. (Chris Bohjalian, Midwives)
  • Stupid me — I fell right into the old pattern and spent a week pretending I was a moving target. (Peter Straub, Mr. X)
  • Red is the color of violent death. Red is the color of strong feelings — love, passion, greed, anger, hatred. (Tami Hoag, A Think Dark Line)
  • Through the doorway which led from her receptionist-secretary’s office into her own, Catherine Morris Perry instantly noticed the box on her desk. (Tony Hillerman, Talking God)
  • I was late, and I don’t mean the kind of late where I spent too much time doing my hair and was now stuck in traffic. (Gemma Halliday, Spying in High Heels)
  • People disappear all the time. (Diana Gabaldon, Outlander)

images-11 copyUrgency in the Opening Sentences of Indie Authors

When the 1st edition of Mastering Point of View was published by Story Press in 2001 (it had been researched and written in 2000), e-books did not exist. Neither did the concept of Indie authors. Only traditionally published authors and self-published authors got their books into print, and only the former had a chance of getting their work into bookstores.

Print-on-demand (POD), which allowed publishers to print books only when they were ordered by bookstores rather than to do print-runs of thousands of copies in advance — necessitating warehousing of any un-shipped copies — revolutionized the printed book industry. Furthermore, the creation of e-books and portable, functional e-book readers allowed more authors without traditional representation in the New York publishing conglomerate to get their books out to potential readers. Since those markets didn’t even exist in 2000, none of those authors were included in the 1st edition of Mastering Point of View.

Since its initial publication, however, with the advent of POD and e-books, more Indie authors have been able to get their fine, well-written books out to the public via online bookstores. Many of these authors have become best-sellers, and all of the Indie authors cited in this book, many of whose work will be found excerpted throughout, are excellent authors who deserve special recognition for their courage in choosing Indie publication as well as for their mastery of fiction fundamentals and Point of View. All these authors, writing in many different genres, have Urgency in their opening sentences.

  • I have a way of becoming invisible. (Cecily Anne Paterson, Invisible)
  • This is the way the world ends — not with a bang or a whimper, but with zombies breaking down the back door. (Amanda Hocking, Hollowland, Book 1, The Hollows)
  • His movements were slow, his roots ripping free of the earth and then replanting with every step. (Emma Kathryn, “Tidal,” Puppets & Dolls)
  • From the first moment I laid eyes on him, I knew I was going to murder him. (Peter Dawes, Rebirth of the Seer, Book 1, The Vampire Flynn)
  • The hardest thing about killing a hitchhiker was finding one to pick up. (Blake Crouch & Jack Kilborn [J. A. Konrath], Serial)
  • Sarah Sawacki checked her watch against the clock on the dash and returned to her vigil. (John Potter, Chasing Innocence)
  • Killing someone is a lot harder than you’d imagine. (L. T. Vargus, Casting Shadows Everywhere)
  • The planet recedes rapidly in the viewport as I gaze upon it. (Drew Wagar, “Metal,” Fusion)
  • It wasn’t supposed to happen this way. (Seumas Gallacher, Vengeance Wears Black)
  • Boone Sumner sat in his pickup truck, gnawing the same thumbnail that he always gnawed when his nerves went a-jitter. (Aaron Saylor, Sewerville)
  • Oh, bugger. I had been hoping for a quiet evening. (John Dolan, Everyone Burns, Book 1, Time, Blood, and Karma)
  • The ship hung above the earth that had created it like a giant, old style compass needle, pointing towards the stars and potential salvation. (John Hoggard, “Baby Babble,” Fusion)

Don’t take any chances on not grabbing your reader’s attention from the very moment they pick up your book or look at a sample of your work. Put Urgency in your first sentence.

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Urgency must be maintained throughout the piece of fiction to be effective. Chapter 2 of Leo Tolstoy’s The Death of Ivan Ilych, for example, begins with this line: “Ivan Ilych’s life had been most simple and most ordinary and therefore most terrible.” That’s fantastic Urgency and it’s in Unlimited Point of View.

Though it may seem artificial for you to continually have to be aware of Urgency as you’re writing the novel, it will not be artificial to your audience. On the contrary, even when an experienced writer reads other books with Urgency, the writer is still turning the pages as rapidly as he can to figure out what’s going to happen, just as any other readers would. As you make the Urgency integral to the plot, character development, or Voice, you can write in any Point of View and effectively maintain your readers’ interest.

Successful authors in all genres maintain Urgency. Diana Gabaldon’s bestselling novel Outlander demonstrates consistently maintained Urgency in First Person Point of View: her female protagonist, Claire, while on her second honeymoon in Scotland, is transported from 1945 back to the past in the early 1740s. While there, Claire constantly worries about getting back to her own time, even as she agrees to a marriage of “convenience” with a young Scottish clansman whom she finds physically and sexually attractive. Gabaldon maintains Urgency through plot (conflict) and character development.

In Book 1 of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, The Fellowship of the Ring, author J. R. R. Tolkien ends virtually every small section within each chapter with Urgency. So each time there is additional white space — when a scene is changing — Tolkien puts in Urgency. He also puts it at the end of each chapter, but, surprisingly, that Urgency is not always as compelling as the Urgency at the end of each section. In any event, he consistently includes it — in plot (conflict), dialogue, character development, or Voice — to keep the story moving steadily forward and to keep his readers engaged.

George R. R. Martin does the same thing in his Song of Ice and Fire [Game of Thrones] series, which is written in Unlimited Point of View. Each chapter is from the perspective of a different character, and the chapter is titled with the name of that character. (Martin calls them “viewpoint” characters, but I’m not sure what that means; what I do know is that while most of the events in each individual chapter are related from said-title-character’s perspective, the entire series is written in Unlimited Point of View.) At the end of each character’s chapter, Martin ends with Urgency, usually in plot (conflict).

Chris Bohjalian, author of several best-selling books, including Midwives and The Law of Similars, is an absolute master of Urgency in plot (conflict), character development, and Voice. Many of his books use First Person Point of View, often presenting different perspectives. No matter the perspective, the Point of View, or the subject matter, Bohjalian consistently maintains Urgency throughout all of his works. As a fellow author, I can see perfectly well when he is putting Urgency in, but that doesn’t stop me from staying awake all night to keep turning the pages and discover what happens to his characters.

Maintaining Urgency, in any form, will keep your readers interested in your work, even if it is a series of books, running into thousands of pages. Without Urgency, readers will quickly lose interest in the fiction, so you need to master it before you attempt to master anything else.

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Since Urgency in achieved through plot, character development, and Voice, it can be maintained in any Point of View. Voice may be easier to develop in First Person Point of View, and so, the more fascinating the Voice of a narrator, the greater the Urgency would be. There are many examples of novels in First Person Point of View that have Urgency in plot and Voice, such as Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. However, there are many other books which develop and maintain Urgency in various Points of View, including Second Person (Jay McInerney’s Bright Lights, Big City), Unlimited (C. L. Bevill’s Bubba and the Dead Woman), and Outer Limited (Alain Robbe-Grillet’s Jealousy).

Urgency takes a little practice at first, but once an author understands the concept of Urgency as “the thing which keeps the reader turning pages” through plot, character development, Voice, or any combination of the three, then Urgency can be present in all Points of View.

Also, this is where your beta-readers (called “family and friends” when I was first publishing) will be most helpful in giving you feedback: to determine if your work has lost Urgency, simply ask your beta-readers, whether they be friends, family members, or paid professionals, to indicate any points in the work where they lost interest, put the work down to do something else that was not an emergency, or wanted to read some other book. If all your readers mark the same places, then you know you need to work on Urgency in those areas of your book.

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1. Go to the bookstore and spend an hour or so reading the opening lines of novels. How many of them impart Urgency? How many of them keep you turning pages, right there in the bookstore? How many of them do you buy so that you can finish reading? If a book can’t pass the Urgency test, it isn’t very likely to have either a large or an enthusiastic audience.

2. Write the first sentence of your novel and make sure it has Urgency, whether in plot, character development, or in Voice. The point of view doesn’t matter, so long as there’s Urgency. Pretend this is the only sentence your audience will read, that they’ll buy the book based on how intriguing or interesting they find this first sentence. Make it the best piece of writing you can. Now, show it to as many other people as you can and ask them the following questions:

  • Would they want to continue reading based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you do have Urgency. If not, you need to work on it.
  • Would they want to buy the book — as an e-book — based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you have good Urgency.
  • Would they want to buy the book — in paperback — based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you have better Urgency.
  • Would they want to buy the book — in hardcover — based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you have excellent Urgency.
  • Would they want to buy the book — in hardcover or paperback — and every other book you’ve written, based on the first sentence alone? If so, then you have fantastic Urgency, and you’ve definitely mastered this concept.

3. Write the first paragraph to the first sentence you wrote for exercise 1. Make sure you periodically include Urgency in the paragraph and that you end with Urgency. Show this paragraph to your readers, as many as you can find, and ask them the same questions you asked for the first exercise, substituting “the first paragraph” for “the first sentence.”

4. Write the title for your novel and make sure it has Urgency. Show this title to your readers, as many as you can find, and ask them the same questions you asked for the first exercise, substituting “title” for “the first sentence.” (Don’t get too attached to your titles, however, since editors and publishing houses have the contractual right to change the title: a title is for marketing purposes, and there are many stories of famous authors who say they simply never got used to the title of their published book, which was chosen by the editor. However, after my first book, none of my titles have ever been changed, so you can learn to put Urgency in your titles — marketable Urgency — and keep the titles you like: just think of the title as a marketing tool.)

Read excerpts from
Mastering Fiction & Point of View


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Urgency in Fiction, Part One

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Urgency in Fiction, Part Two

Urgency in Fiction, Part Two

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Writing Effective Dialogue

Once fiction writers have mastered Urgency (parts one and two) and creating realistic characters, the next major stumbling block is usually portraying effective dialogue. The ...
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from Mastering Point of View: Using POV & Fiction Elements to Create Conflict, Develop Characters, Revise your Work, & Improve Your Craft; Revised, Updated, & Expanded; 20th Anniversary Edition; © 2001, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2017 by Alexandria Constantinova Szeman (originally published by Story Press, 2001). All rights reserved. Please do not quote or excerpt without accompanying copyright information.

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Filed under Authors, Books, Creative Writing, Editors, How to Write, How to Write a Book, Indie Authors, Point of View, Self-Published Authors, Traditional Publishing, Writing, Writing & Revising, Writing Exercises

Urgency in Fiction, Part One


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If I hadn’t fallen off the mountain, I never would have believed it. Actually, I did believe it before I fell off the mountain, but the first sentence of this paragraph is an example of the most important element of fiction today — even more important to master than Point of View, which is writers seem to worry most about. Urgency. Writers need Urgency in their fiction in order to have vibrant, intriguing, publishable fiction that will keep readers buying their books.


Urgency is what keeps the reader reading. It’s that simple. Urgency is whatever elements in the fiction make the reader want to continue turning the pages.

Do All Books Have Urgency?

Sometimes at writing conferences, students or new writers claim that many published or classic authors do not have Urgency in their works. To prove their point, they cite authors — some of them classics, some of them bestsellers — who do not have Urgency in their writing. Thus, their argument goes, they themselves should not be required to have Urgency.

It’s true that many writers do not have Urgency. But many of the classic writers they mention — Dickens, Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Shakespeare — do, indeed, have Urgency in their literary works. As for any authors from previous centuries who do not have the kind of Urgency that fiction has now, those authors would have an extremely difficult, if not impossible, time getting published now.

Many of the contemporary, well-established authors cited in this argument about authors who do not have Urgency are relying on their already established audiences and bestseller status to get them published. Apparently, as long as they continue to make money for their publishers, these authors no longer have to worry about Urgency.

(At a conference, a famous author once told the audience that when he was a beginning writer, he had to have Urgency — he called it “Intrigue” — from the very first sentence and had to write much shorter books; after several of his books became bestsellers in Europe, however, he said he could “dispense” with Urgency in the first sentence — he neglected to tell us when he did put Urgency into his work — and write books as long as he wanted them to be: many of his later books were 1,500+ pages long and were very slow reads.)

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How the Change in the Publishing Industry
Made Urgency More Important

Very few authors are lucky enough to have readers waiting in line for their next book to be published, and those authors are usually already bestsellers. Writing and publishing is an extremely competitive business. Writers are competing for readers. Writers compete with television, videos, movies, as well as with countless other authors for their audience, as well as with readers’ families, jobs, and other outside obligations for valuable reading time.

In the traditional publishing model, writers send their work to agents, who attempt to determine whether they can sell those manuscripts to editors. At the publishing houses, which have become huge conglomerates, editors look at the manuscripts and try to determine if there is a reading market for those books which will make a profit for the publishing house. Thus, there is a system in place in traditional publishing for attempting to determine which books might sell. Traditional publishing does not exist to validate a book’s merit or literary quality. Neither of the latter things are concerns of traditional publishing.

Marketing potential and profit drive the business of traditional publishing. Agents want to sell writers’ manuscripts to editors, who want to convince their editorial board at the publishing house that the book will sell on the open market. These are the things that determine whether books are accepted by agents and, in turn, by traditional publishing houses. Even if the manuscripts are accepted, if the published books do not earn an adequate amount of money for the House in a requisite time (all of which is variable and arbitrary), the book will be taken out-of-print (OP).

Now, with Print-on-Demand (POD) paper books — where books are only printed as they are ordered rather than in predetermined print-runs and warehoused until ordered by bookstores — the ubiquity of e-books, and relatively inexpensive and accessible e-readers, formerly traditionally published authors can put their OP books back out on the market themselves, without having to get an agent or another publisher. More critical in this business environment is the fact that writers who have never been through the traditional publishing system can now self-publish relatively cheaply, and they no longer have to invest huge amounts of money to print books (then store them somewhere) or persuade local bookstores to stock their titles.

Unfortunately, this equal opportunity POD and e-book publishing world now forces individual readers to wade through a great deal of bad writing in order to find the good writing. While it is true that many poorly written books are published by traditional Houses, and some of them become bestsellers, it is also true that the traditional publishing establishment does nothing to advertise any of its books. Most books rely on reviews or, more frequently, on “word of mouth” for their sales. Even before brick-and-mortar bookstores were slowly replaced by e-book and online books sales, traditional bookstores had very limited shelf-space so there was no way that any individual bookstore could even have one copy of every published book available in its store.

Given all these marketing considerations and restrictions, as well as the absolute deluge of self-published writers who do not know how to write well or to tell good stories yet are still able to put their books on the market, contemporary writers have a more challenging task than any of their predecessors ever did. Writers must master Urgency in order to tell a good story and to have a competitive chance at reaching their reading audience.images-10 copy

Urgency Must be Integral

Urgency should not be “pasted on” or simply attached to the piece of writing. It must be an integral part of it, inseparable from the plot’s conflict, character development, or Voice (characters’ or author’s). This Urgency will keep the readers clamoring for more, so it must be honest Urgency, that is, it must naturally evolve from the characters, the plot, the conflict, and the circumstances of the fiction you are writing, no matter its genre.

Urgency Is Not a New Concept

Though various authors have different names for it — suspense, mystery, or intrigue — Urgency is present is most of the enduring literary works, no matter how long ago they were written. Shakespeare’s Hamlet begins with the guards discussing a ghost who looks like Hamlet’s dead father and who appears even as the guards are talking about him, while Shakespeare’s Macbeth opens with witches chanting spells concerning the titular protagonist. Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice begins with a mother desperately trying to arrange marriages for her five daughters, preferably with wealthy men. Dostoyevsky’s Notes from Underground opens with the First Person narrator relating, “I am sick.” Urgency has always been present in the best literature, no matter its Point of View or genre. Though some bestselling, traditionally published authors may “relax” once they have established audiences and no longer include Urgency as often, most writers cannot afford to do so, no matter their work’s Point of View or genre. In any event, the best writers always consistently include Urgency in order not to lose the audience they already have acquired.

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There are three basic areas you can include Urgency in your fiction:

  • Plot, which must include conflict
  • Character Development
  • Voice

While it is possible to concentrate on Urgency in only one of these areas, you should develop Urgency in as many of these areas as possible to write a well-rounded piece of fiction that will have your readers discussing your work and its characters long after they have finished reading to see what happens.

shutterstock_243015139Urgency in Plot

Most readers initially read a book for its plot, that is, they turn pages to see how the story unfolds. The readers stay awake all night to find out how the woman handcuffed to the bed in a cabin in the wilderness will escape after her husband drops dead of a heart attack during a “sex game” (Gerald’s Game, Stephen King), or to see how the wife and her son will escape from the isolated, snow-bound hotel after her husband-caretaker has gone mad and attempted to murder them (The Shining, Stephen King). In fact, there are many published authors who are master storytellers — i.e., their plots are so compelling the reading audience cannot put the books down — without necessarily being brilliant writers: their characters may not be fully developed or their writing style may not be exceptional. Good storytellers do this with Urgency in plot, and they have mastered Urgency in this area.

Urgency is somewhat easier to develop when it is part of the plot because you must have conflict in plot, and conflict readily lends itself to Urgency. All fiction must have conflict: without it, there is no reason for the audience to continue reading. You could almost say that stories exist so that the audience may see how the characters work through the conflicts they encounter.

The earliest example we have of Urgency in storytelling in the English language is actually an epic poem in Old English written by an anonymous Anglo-Saxon author. Beowulf recounts the tale of the brave hero of the same name who comes to the aid of the king and his people in a neighboring kingdom who are under attack by the monster Grendel. Despite all the failures of the king and his best warriors to dispatch Grendel, no one but Beowulf succeeds.

Because we are not given any reasons for Beowulf’s success in destroying the monster Grendel, and, afterward, Grendel’s Mother, who comes seeking revenge, the character of Beowulf is not developed. Fifty years later, as a King himself in his own land, he fights and defeats a Dragon; in this fight, Beowulf is mortally wounded. Afterward, he is given a hero’s burial. Beowulf is presented as a successful hero from the beginning of the story, who comes to the aid of another kingdom in dire need, returns to his own land, where he becomes a king himself, and successfully defeats another monster, though he is mortally wounded in the process. A hero he begins, and a hero he remains.

It is the conflict in the plot that gives the story of Beowulf its Urgency, not its character development or Voice. Though Beowulf is considered a combination of historical characters and fictional heroic deeds, it is the plot Urgency which has kept the story interesting to subsequent generations, not its historical elements or character development.



It would seem, then, that Urgency in plot is essential to a writer’s success, and plot must have conflict. The traditional divisions of conflict have typically been divided into these categories:

  • man v man
  • man v himself
  • man v nature
  • man v supernatural

Of course, many stories, novellas, and novels have many of these conflicts at the same time. Moby-Dick, for example, not only pits Captain Ahab and his crew against the whale as well as the dangers of the sea itself (man v nature), but against each other, as when First Mate Starbuck argues that their “job” is to fill the hull with sperm whale oil, not seek the Captain’s vengeance (man v man); the novel also shows several instances of characters having doubts about their own behavior: Ahab, Starbuck, and the narrator Ishmael among them (man v himself).

Shakespeare’s Hamlet has the young Prince Hamlet confronting the ghost of his father (man v supernatural) who claims he was murdered by his own brother, who married his widow — Hamlet’s mother — and became the king; he asks Hamlet to avenge his murder by killing Claudius (man v man); but Hamlet, though not doubting the existence of the ghost itself, wonders whether it has been sent to him from heaven or hell, and whether Hamlet himself will be damned for committing a murder — if the ghost is a demonic spirit — or be justified in seeking revenge for his father’s murder — if the ghost is, indeed, the spirit of his father. This last conflict, man v himself, is one of the strongest in the work since it constantly causes Hamlet to doubt himself and to doubt the “evidence” that points to his uncle’s guilt.

Some critics insist that the final division above — man v supernatural — is really just man v himself since supernatural beings do not exist. They claim that even if God is an actual character in the work of fiction, it is really about the character’s belief in God, so it is man v himself conflict. Some insist that man v supernatural is nothing more than a sub-division of man v nature, but others argue that including vampires, werewolves, shape-shifters, or any other objects that do not actually exist in nature prevent its being a sub-division of man v nature. Further, some readers do believe in the existence of aliens, ghosts, and angels, while others do not. Where are these beings to be put in the traditional grouping of conflicts: in man v supernatural or in a sub-division of man v nature? I’ve chosen to include man v supernatural as a fourth category to include all possible conflict types. After all, it doesn’t matter how an author classifies his conflict, only that he include conflict in his fiction.

Plot Urgency is relatively similar no matter what Point of View you choose to write in: First Person, Inner Limited, Second Person, Unlimited — all Points of View easily encompass plot Urgency and conflict. To master Urgency in plot, you simply have to tell a good story, one whose conflicts will keep your readers’ attention. It is important to note, however, that if your readers are able to correctly guess how your story will turn out, then it loses Urgency. The story’s end must logically follow its action, of course, but readers should not be able to correctly determine the end early in the book.

No matter which Point of View you choose, you should increase the conflicts in importance and intensity throughout the novel to create Urgency in Plot and to maintain your readers’ interest. Some writers call this the “dramatic arc.” When I was studying literature — so many lifetimes ago — plot was visually represented something like a hook, or an upside-down checkmark.

The long left part of the hook was called the “rising action,” which simply meant that it was a series of conflicts increasing in intensity until the you arrived at the peak, which was called the “climax,” meaning it was the “ultimate conflict” of the work. The climax was supposed to be the conflict that all the previous conflicts had been leading up to. It was also supposed to be the final conflict in the book or story. No new conflicts were supposed to appear after that culminating conflict. Literally.

The short downward line was called the “falling action” or “the dénouement” — translation, “untying or unraveling the knot” — when all conflicts among characters were resolved, and all resolutions to the fictional world presented. The dénouement was meant to be a catharsis for the reader, releasing any remaining anxiety and tension, while eliminating difficulties for any of the characters. In short, these were the days when readers had to be reassured that they were reading a story, and, in effect, the author had to inform them how everything turned out.

Much of contemporary literature, especially in books written in series, no longer include a dénouement. For one thing, authors who write book-series typically end each book on Urgency in order to make the reader want to get the next book. In literary fiction, authors often end on Urgency because they want the endings to be ambiguous, morally questionable, or open to interpretation. As fiction itself has become more sophisticated, so has its readers — or perhaps it’s the other way around. In any event, readers no longer need an author’s reassuring dénouement at the end of a piece of fiction.

Previously, some literature or creative writing instructors used to add a flat line before the long left hook of the “rising action,” calling the flat line the “back story.” Visually, the flat line of the back story was very symbolic: nothing important happened. The back story was the history of the characters before any conflict began. As fiction became more sophisticated, readers no longer wanted to plow through endless “back story” in which nothing happened: they wanted to jump right into the action. Writers have learned to eliminate this flat plain of “back story” and weave anything of importance in the characters’ history into the story itself. Most successful fiction now starts with Urgency; thus it begins with conflict.

Final Words of Urgency in Plot

Plot and conflict can create Urgency in any Point of View, but Urgency in plot is absolutely essential in Outer Limited Point of View because the only thing the readers can know about the characters is their observable behavior and dialogue. Therefore, it is imperative that your characters do or say things to show the conflicts as well as the Urgency in plot that will keep the readers turning the pages. Since you, as the author, are limited to presenting only the external behaviors of your characters, you can master this Point of View more effectively with plot Urgency and conflict because you will have to create concrete actions, behaviors, and dialogue to present to your readers.

Note that the only conflict you cannot easily present in Outer Limited Point of View is man v himself, unless, of course, you present the character’s internal conflict in external ways. You cannot show a character arguing with himself, for example, unless he does it aloud. You cannot show any characters’ inner emotional or psychological life in Outer Limited Point of View, so you will have to work harder to show the inner conflict in an external manner. Read Alain Robbe-Grillet’s Jealousy for excellent examples of presenting plot urgency in Outer Limited Point of View.

If you are writing books in a series, remember that each book has to have its own increasing conflicts and the series itself has to have separate increasing conflicts. Many authors make the mistake of writing an incredible first book in a series, with a tremendous plot, full of great conflict and Urgency, then write subsequent books where the plot slows down tremendously (the books also often get shorter) and the Urgency virtually disappears. Make sure, also, that no plot holes remain in the series.rds092086

Urgency in Character Development

Urgency in character development can be integrally related to Point of View. Character development Urgency is most challenging in Unlimited Point of View since the author can provide the readers with any and all interpretations of the characters and their actions, thus leaving nothing for the readers to explore. Still, as I explained earlier, there is a difference between an author’s knowing everything and revealing everything about his characters in Unlimited Point of View. That means you can put sufficient character development Urgency in Unlimited Point of View by not revealing everything about the characters to the readers from the very beginning.

In First Person and Inner Limited Points of View, the readers are restricted to viewing the world from one character’s perspective. Since only this character’s emotions, thoughts, and motivations will be revealed to the readers, these Points of View automatically can set up Urgency in character development, both for the characters through whose perspective we view the action and for the other characters in the novel, all of whom are presented externally. Whatever the protagonist does not know about other characters in the novel in these Points of View, for instance, the readers cannot know. That creates character development Urgency.

Outer Limited Point of View creates the greatest opportunity for character development Urgency since the author is not revealing any interior or hidden motives. Because only the external life of all the characters is presented, readers are greatly involved in figuring out the causes for the characters’ behavior. Unless you present the character’s secret desires and ulterior motives in a spoken monologue, as is done in theater, for example, the readers will not know why the character is behaving in a certain way. That creates character development Urgency because the readers will want to continue reading the novel to understand the character.

Unfortunately, Outer Limited Point of View also has the greatest chance of alienating some readers for the very reason it can be most interesting to the author. Since readers must figure out everything about the characters’ inner lives for themselves, based on the author’s depiction of the characters’ external behavior, the readers may get frustrated or may misinterpret the characters’ behavior. Outer Limited Point of View is always extremely challenging to an author, but revealing character development Urgency in this Point of View is very demanding.

Final Words of Urgency in Character Development

All Points of View lend themselves to character development, of course, so the trick to learning Urgency in character development is to let your characters deal with the conflicts which confront them in the fiction in the way that the characters would do so, rather than the way you yourself might personally deal with such conflicts (or with how you think you would deal with them). This will help you not only develop your characters and increase Urgency, but will prevent you from writing the same story over and over.

If you are writing literary fiction or another type of book that stands alone, then all the character development Urgency must appear in that single work. If you are writing a series, then the character development can take place over several books in the series. To maintain Urgency, however, you should be careful to spread the character development out relatively evenly over the books: don’t save it all for the final book in the series or your readers will never make it there.

Be sure that you answer any questions about character relationships and development over the course of the series: sometimes authors set up fantastic Urgency in character development in the first book of a series, then seem to forget about it completely. This leaves “holes” in the relationships that can detract from Urgency since the readers will wonder about the characters and their development. Most specifically, readers will wonder why you didn’t tell them everything about the characters’ natures, relationships, histories, conflicts, etc. You need to be highly aware of those things when writing series so that the Urgency in character development is maintained over the entire group of books.


Urgency in Voice

A distinctive or unusual Voice, whether a narrator’s, protagonist’s, or an author’s, usually doesn’t appear until the author has mastered Point of View. However, you can understand the concept without being proficient at creating it. When the Voice in a piece of literature has Urgency, it is the Voice itself that makes the audience want to continue reading. Zora Neale Hurston’s “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” is an example of wonderful Urgency in Voice, as is the opening of Dostoyevsky’s Notes from the Underground and Melville’s Moby Dick. The first two examples cited are in First Person Point of View; Moby-Dick is in multiple Points of View.

Urgency in Voice is directly related to Point of View, and many writers find it easier to have Urgency in voice when writing in First Person Point of View. This ease may be due to the intimate bond created when readers hear the narrator’s words. However, it is also possible to have voice Urgency in other Points of View, as Hemingway’s novels demonstrate and as the excerpts cited above demonstrate. In Unlimited Point of View, it is the protagonist’s or the author’s distinctive Voice that creates the Urgency rather than a narrator’s.

Urgency in Plot, Character Development, and Voice

Ideally, a great piece of fiction would manage to maintain Urgency in all three areas, keeping the reader turning pages not only because of the fast-moving plot with its increasing conflicts, as well as the interesting characters, but because of an intriguing Voice. Most works do maintain Urgency in plot and in character development. Because Voice is the most difficult to attain, in any Point of View, it is also the most challenging in which to maintain Urgency in a work of fiction.

Final Words of Urgency in Voice

While Urgency in Voice may be the most difficult to attain, no matter which Point of View you choose to write in, it can also be the most artistically rewarding, both for the authors and the readers. I encourage you to read works that have strong Voice, whether a narrator’s, a protagonist’s, or an author’s; to listen to different dialects, slang, and idiolects; and to learn how to reproduce different Voices in writing in various Points of View to master Voice. Remember, too, that Urgency in Voice does not have to be separate from Urgency in plot or character development. In fact, ideally, all three would be combined.

If you are writing a literary book, of course you do not have to repeat the same Voice in subsequent books. If you do, it will ultimately be considered as the author’s Voice rather than as a narrator’s or protagonist’s Voice if you use the same one in every book you write. If you are writing a series, however, then you should retain the same Voice throughout all the books in the series, as C. L. Bevill does in the Bubba Series. The Voice, in that instance, is one of the things that ties the books together.shutterstock_169955744


The most important thing to remember in creating urgency, no matter what Point of View you’re writing your novel in, is that any place you might lose the reader’s attention is a place you need to have urgency. Here are my suggestions for Urgency placement:

  • the first sentence
  • the last sentence of the first paragraph
  • at the beginning and end of each chapter
  • at the beginning and end of each section, if your novel is divided into sections
  • any time you change narrators or Points of View (these could be considered informal section divisions, so you should have urgency at the beginning and end of each, even if the section division is not formal)
  • periodically throughout the novel
  • the end of a novel if it is in a series, or if you want the ending to be ambiguous or open to various interpretations

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1. Imagine that you’re at a party and by chance you meet an agent or an editor. You’ve just finished your novel, and you’re dying to get an agent or editor to look at your work. Now, you don’t want to be too obnoxious, so you don’t hit the agent/editor with the fact that you’re an aspiring fiction writer right away. After all, it’s a party. But eventually the topic comes up, and since the agent/editor is so impressed that you didn’t try to shove your novel down his throat, he actually asks you want your novel is about. You have only one sentence with which to capture the agent’s/editor’s attention and make him beg you to send the novel. This is called The Pitch. Write the one sentence that gets him interested in your novel. Make sure it has Urgency. Show it to your readers. Ask them if they’d want to see the whole book based on that one sentence. If so, congratulations: you have Urgency. (You can also use this sentence after your novel gets published. Since it’s usually about a year to eighteen months from the time a book gets sold to the time it’s available at bookstores, you’ll have plenty of time to “sell” your novel by using this sentence.) If this Pitch works, memorize it and be able to give it quickly and smoothly whenever anyone asks you what your book is about.

2. Pretend you work for TV Guide, DirecTV, or Dish TV, where employees — many of whom are aspiring writers — have to watch movies and television episodes, then write a one-sentence Pitch that gets the viewer interested in watching it. I’m sure you’ve seen the ones where the writers thought the movies were stupid: they sound stupid in the description. Often, the endings are given away, as in “A small group of humans in an isolated Alaskan town fight a losing battle against marauding Zombies.” Since you know the humans lose, there’s no point in watching it. Pick any famous or well-known movie or television show and write the one-sentence description or Pitch for it, containing Urgency, which will make the viewers want to watch it, without giving away the ending.

3. Pick any fairy tale, folk tale, or otherwise well known story and write the one-sentence description-Pitch for it, making its potential audience want to read it; be sure to include Urgency without giving away the ending.

4. Pick any of the following opening sentences and write the first paragraph that follows. Be sure to maintain Urgency throughout the paragraph as well as in the final sentence. After you have completed it, show it to your readers for their suggestions and feedback.

  • The woman held the framed picture in her hand without looking at it.
  • The man with the shovel stood in the rain.
  • “You were there from the beginning,” s/he said, “so you can tell everyone the truth.”
  • “I wasn’t the one who started it.”
  • The man was in the alley, urinating against the wall. (Feel free to change the diction to fit your paragraph better)
  • The story starts with a man in an alley, urinating against the wall. (Feel free to change the diction to fit your paragraph better)
  • He was exactly as she thought he’d be. (Feel free to reverse genders.)
  • She had no choice but to do what her parents expected.

Read excerpts from
Mastering Fiction & Point of View


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Myths about Point of View

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Urgency in Fiction, Part One

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Urgency in Fiction, Part Two

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No Demons, No Saints: Creating Realistic Characters

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Writing Effective Dialogue

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from Mastering Point of View: Using POV & Fiction Elements to Create Conflict, Develop Characters, Revise your Work, & Improve Your Craft; Revised, Updated, & Expanded; 20th Anniversary Edition; © 2001, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2017 by Alexandria Constantinova Szeman (originally published by Story Press, 2001). All rights reserved. Please do not quote or excerpt without accompanying copyright information.

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Bernard Rejects Rejection


Writing is very hard work. Being an author is an incredibly difficult job, one fraught with constant rejection. The only career I can think of that probably has even more rejection than being an author is being an actor. Still, if you are to survive as a writer, you must constantly write, improve your craft, and deal with rejection: from family, friends, colleagues, grocery clerks, neighbors, and even strangers.

If you wish to go beyond the “career” of writer and become an author, you must deal with rejection on an exponentially larger scale, experiencing rejection — and sometimes insults — from agents, editors, publishers, readers, reviewers, family, friends, colleagues, neighbors, the person who bags your groceries, and even strangers.

Bernard is a writer who wants to be an author, and he found a unique way to  deal with all the constant rejection in an author’s life. Bernard rejects rejection.

I advise every writer and author to follow Bernard’s example.

You’ll feel so much better after writing that letter.

Just don’t ever mail it.

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